COVID-19: SSP Relaxations
To help employees and businesses manage the Coronavirus outbreak, a number of relaxations have been made to the statutory sick pay (SSP) rules. They apply from 13 March 2020. Details are on the Gov.uk website.
SSP payable from day one
Employees will be able to benefit from SSP from the first day of their absence – they will not need to serve the three waiting days before SSP can be paid.
Extension to those self-isolating
Statutory sick pay will also be available during the pandemic to those who are self-isolating, even if they are not ill themselves. This will include individuals who are self-isolating because someone in their household is showing COVID-19 symptoms.
No need for a Fit Note
Employees can self-certify absences of up to seven days. Beyond seven days, a Fit Note is normally required. To relieve pressure on GPs, employers should not ask for a Fit Note. A temporary alternative, an isolation note, can be obtained from NHS-111, but employers should exercise discretion when asking for medical evidence during the pandemic.
Small employers to be able to reclaim SSP
Normally, employers must suffer the cost of SSP paid to employees who are off sick. However, to help small businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic, small businesses employing fewer than 250 employees on 28 February 2020 will be able to claim a refund of SSP paid to eligible employees who are absent from work due to COVID-19. The refund will be capped at two weeks’ SSP per eligible employee.
As currently there is no process in place for reclaiming SSP, the Government are to work with employers over the coming months to set up a repayment mechanism.
Employers should keep records of staff absences and SSP paid to support the refund claim.
COVID-19: Business rate relief and grants
To help business affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Chancellor announced a number of measures effected through the business rates system.
Business rate retail relief increased and extended
At the time of the 2020 Budget, the Chancellor announced that the business rates retail discount for 2020/21 would be doubled from 50% to 100%. The discount is also to be extended to the leisure and hospitality sectors.
The Chancellor also announced funding of £2.2 billion would be provided to local authorities to enable them to provide grants of £3,000 to all businesses receiving small business rate relief. Following the Budget, the Chancellor announced an increase in the amount of the grant to £10,000. Small business rate relief is available in full where the rateable value of the business premises is less than £12,000. The relief reduces from 100% to nil where the rateable value is between £12,000 and £15,000.
Grants of £25,000 are also to be made available for retail, hospitality and leisure businesses with a rateable value of between £15,001 and £51,000. Businesses in this sector will receive a grant of £10,000 where the rateable value of their business premises is £15,000 or less.
Watch this space
New measures are being announced daily to help businesses survive the pandemic. Speak to us to find out what help is available and check out the Gov.uk website.
Entrepreneurs’ relief – reduction in lifetime limit
Prior to the Budget, there had been much speculation that that entrepreneurs’ relief would be abolished. In the event it stayed – albeit with the new name of ‘Business Asset Disposal Relief’ – and a much-reduced lifetime limit.
New £1 million lifetime limit
The lifetime limit is reduced from £10 million to £1 million with immediate effect for disposal on or after 11 March 2020 (Budget Day). Disposals prior to Budget day that qualified for entrepreneurs’ relief count towards the new £1 million limit, and where this has already been reached, the relief will not be forthcoming on future disposals, even if the qualifying conditions are met.
Anti-forestalling measures were announced which may negate protective action taken ahead of the Budget in an attempt to preserve availability of the relief as it applied at that time.
Where arrangements were entered into before Budget day, the old £10 million lifetime limit will only apply if:
- the parties to the contract are able to demonstrate that they did not enter into the contract for the purposes of obtaining a tax advantage by virtue of the capital gains tax rules setting the contract date as the date of the disposal; and
- where the parties to the contract are connected, the contract was entered into for wholly commercial reasons.
If the above conditions are not met, the reduced lifetime allowance of £1 million applies.
Anti-forestalling rules also apply in certain circumstances where between 6 April 2019 and 11 March 2020, shares were exchanged for those in another company, and both companies are owned or controlled by substantially the same person.
If you are planning on disposing of business assets or shares in a personal company, it is important to plan ahead to maximise relief. We can help you. Remember, spouses and civil partners each have their own lifetime limit.
Guidance on the changes is available on the Gov.uk website.
Budget 2020 – rates and allowances
The Chancellor, Rishi Sunak, presented his first Budget on 11 March 2020, confirming the rates and allowances applying for the 2020/21 tax year. The following key rates and allowances were announced.
Full details of the rates and allowances applying for 2020/21 are available on the Gov.uk website.
As previously announced, the personal allowance remains at £12,500 for 2020/21. It is reduced by £1 for every £2 by which income exceeds £100,000. This means that if your income is more that £125,000 for 2020/21, you will not receive a personal allowance.
Income tax rates and allowances are unchanged too. The basic rate remains at 20%, the higher rate at 40% and the additional rate at 45%. The basic rate band is also unchanged at £37,500, meaning that the point at which higher rate tax becomes payable remains at £50,000. Tax is payable at the additional rate on income over £150,000.
The dividend allowance remains at £2,000 for 2020/21. Dividends, which are treated as the top slice of income, are taxed at 7.5% to the extent that they fall within the basic rate band, 32.5% to the extent that they fall in the higher rate band and at 38.1% to the extent that they fall in the additional rate band.
Basic rate taxpayers continue to benefit from a savings allowance of £1,000 for 2020/21, while higher rate taxpayers can enjoy a savings allowance of £500. There is no savings allowance for additional rate taxpayers.
The starting savings rate of 0% applies to savings in the savings starting rate band of £5,000, but remember this is reduced by taxable non-savings income.
The rate of corporation tax was due to fall to 17% for the financial year 2020. However, as previously announced, it will remain at 19%. It will stay at 19% for the financial year 2021 too.
Capital gains tax
The capital gains tax annual exempt amount is increased to £12,300 for 2020/21 for individuals and personal representatives, and to £6,150 for trustees.
Capital gains tax rates remain at 10% where income and gains fall in the basic rate band and at 20% thereafter. Higher rates of 18% and 28% apply to residential property gains.
Off-payroll working rules delayed
In a surprise move, the Government have announced that the reforms to the off-payroll working rules have been delayed by one year and will now come into effect from 6 April 2021. The delay is to help businesses affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The delay will affect medium and large private sector organisations engaging workers through personal service companies and other intermediaries, and workers providing their services to such organisations in this way.
As the announcement of the delay came only three weeks before the reforms were due to take effect, it comes too late for many. To avoid having to deal with the new rules, many organisations have already taken the decision not to use workers providing their services via an intermediary, opting instead to place all workers ‘on payroll’.
Impact of the delay
The extent to which you will be affected by the delay will depend on whether you are a small, medium or large private sector organisation, a public body or a worker providing their services through a personal service company or other intermediary.
Medium and large private sector organisations
Medium and large private sector organisations (as defined for Companies Act 2006 purposes) who engage workers providing their services through an intermediary can carry on as normal for 2020/21, paying the intermediary gross. They will not need to undertake status determinations and deduct tax and National Insurance from the deemed payment to the worker’s intermediary where the worker would be an employee if their services were provided directly. A further plus is that they will not yet need to pay employer National Insurance contributions on the deemed payment. These changes will now become a reality from 6 April 2021 rather than from 6 April 2020.
Workers providing their services through an intermediary to medium and large private sector organisations
Had the reforms gone ahead as planned from 6 April 2020, the responsibility for determining whether the off-payroll working rules apply would have shifted to the end client where a worker provides his or her services to a medium or large private sector organisation through an intermediary. This shift will now not take place until 6 April 2021.
As a result, the worker’s intermediary will continue to be paid gross, regardless of whether the off-payroll working rules apply. Responsibility for determining whether IR35 applies remains with the worker’s intermediary for 2020/21. If it does, the worker’s intermediary must calculate the deemed payment at 5 April 2021 and account for tax and National Insurance on that deemed payment.
A word of caution here – if the worker would be an employee of the end client if they provided their services directly rather than through an intermediary, the worker’s intermediary will need to operate IR35. While HMRC have said that they will not use off-payroll working determinations to check IR35 compliance for past years, the delay in implementing the reforms is not a licence to ignore the rules.
Small private sector organisations
The extended off-payroll working rules do not apply to small private sector organisations. If you fall into this category and engage workers who provide their service through a personal service company, you should continue, both for 2020/21 and beyond, to make payments to the worker’s intermediary gross.
If you provide your services to a small private sector organisation via a personal service company, your personal service company must determine whether IR35 applies, and apply the IR35 rules if it does.
The delay has no impact on public bodies engaging workers through intermediaries. The rules as they apply where the end client is a public body were reformed from April 2017, and these will continue to apply for 2020/21 (albeit without the tweaks needed to make the rules suitable for application to the private sector).
The delay has no impact on workers providing their services through an intermediary to a public sector body either. The public sector body will continue to determine whether the off-payroll working rules apply, and deduct tax and National Insurance from payment where they do.
If you are unsure of how the off-payroll working rules apply to you, please contact us for advice.
Using capital losses
Where capital gains tax would be payable on a gain made on the disposal of an asset, if the disposal results in a loss, the loss is an allowable loss for capital gains tax purposes.
Gains in the same tax year
In the event that capital gains are made in the same tax year as an allowable loss, the loss is first set against those gains. This may mean that the annual exempt amount is lost as this is set against net gains for the tax year (chargeable gains less allowable losses).
Carry forward unused losses
If there are no gains in the tax year, or allowable losses exceed chargeable gains, the unused losses can be carried forward to a future tax year.
There is no requirement to use them against the first available chargeable gains; rather you can choose when to use them. And unlike the set-off against gains of the same year, they can be set against net gains to the extent that they exceed the annual exempt amount, so that this is not wasted. Any losses remaining unused can be carried forward to a future tax year.
Report the loss
Remember to report capital losses to HMRC. This can be done on your tax return, or by writing to HMRC if you do not need to complete a tax return. You have four years from the end of the tax year in which to claim your losses. We can help you plan your disposals in a tax-efficient manner.
Termination payments and employer National Insurance
From 6 April 2020, employers will have to pay Class 1A National Insurance contributions on taxable termination payments in excess of the £30,000 tax-free limit. However, no contributions will be payable by employees; although employers and employees both pay Class 1 contributions on payments made on termination that count as earnings.
Earnings or a termination payment?
Payments made on the termination of an employment are taxed as earnings up to the amount that the employee would have been paid had they worked their notice period. Amounts in excess of this are treated as termination payments, the first £30,000 of which are tax-free. Some payments, such as redundancy pay, count towards the £30,000 threshold rather than being treated as earnings.
Class 1 National Insurance contributions are payable on payments of earnings by both the employer and the employee.
New Class 1A charge on taxable termination payments
Termination payments are taxable to the extent that they exceed the £30,000 threshold. From 6 April 2020, employers will also be required to pay Class 1A contributions on the taxable amount. Contributions will be payable at the rate of 13.8% to the extent that the payment exceeds £30,000.
No employee contributions
As the Class 1A charge is an employer-only charge, the position for employees is unchanged. Employees will pay tax on the excess over £30,000, but not National Insurance.
The systems for paying and reporting Class 1A National Insurance contributions on taxable termination payments is different to that for benefits in kind. Instead of including the termination payment in the calculation of the Class 1A liability on the P11D(b) after the year end, it must be reported to HMRC under real time information, as for Class 1 National Insurance and PAYE, for the tax month in which the termination payment was paid to the employee.
Payment to be made in-year
Unlike Class 1A National Insurance contributions on benefits in kind, which are due by 22 July after the end of the tax year where payment is made electronically (or 19 July where paid by cheque), Class 1A National Insurance contributions on taxable termination payments must be made in-year.
The Class 1A liability must be paid with the PAYE and Class 1 National Insurance for the tax month in which the payment was made; i.e. by 22nd of the month where payment is made electronically and by 19th of the month where payment is made by cheque.
Accelerate termination payments to avoid the charge
Where a termination is on the cards, terminating the employment prior to 6 April 2020 will save the Class 1A contributions. We can help you structure your termination payments and deal with the associated tax and National Insurance correctly.
National Insurance contributions for 2020/21
The starting point for paying National Insurance is to increase to £9,500 for 2020/21 for employees and for Class 4 contributions payable by the self-employed. This is in line with a Government commitment to increase the starting threshold to £12,500 – the level of the personal allowance for tax purposes.
Employees and Employers
Class 1 National Insurance contributions are payable on an employee’s earnings by the employee (primary contributions) and by the employer (secondary contributions). The rates and thresholds applying for 2020/21 are shown in the table below.
|Weekly lower earnings limit (LEL)||
£120 per week
£520 per month
£6,240 per year
|Primary threshold (PT)||
£183 per week
£792 per month
£9,500 per year
|Secondary threshold (ST)||
£169 per week
£732 per month
£9,500 per year
|Upper earnings limit (UEL)||
£962 per week
£4,167 per month
£50,000 per year
|Upper secondary threshold for under 21s||
£962 per week
£4,167 per month
£50,000 per year
|Apprentice upper secondary rate (AUST)||
£962 per week
£4,167 per month
£50,000 per year
|Employee’s primary rate (payable on earnings between the PT and UEL)||12%|
|Employee’s additional rate (payable on earnings above the UEL)||2%|
|Secondary rate (payable on earnings above the relevant secondary threshold)||13.8%|
|Reduced rate for certain married women (on earnings between the PT and UEL)||5.85%|
For 2020/21, the primary and secondary thresholds are no longer aligned. This means that the point at which employer contributions for employees over the age 21 kicks in is £169 per week (£732 per month), while employee contributions are not payable until earnings reach £183 per week (£792 per month). On earnings between these limits, employer contributions are payable but not employee contributions.
The rate of Class 1A contributions (payable on benefits in kind) and Class 1B contributions (payable on items included in a PAYE settlement agreement) remains at 13.8%.
The self employed
The self-employed pay flat-rate Class 2 contributions and also Class 4 contributions on their profits.
For 2020/21, Class 2 contributions increase by 5p per week to £3.05 per week. Contributions are only mandatory if profits exceed the small profits threshold. This is set at £6,475 for 2020/21. However, they can be paid voluntarily where profits are less than this level.
As with employees, the starting point at which Class 4 contributions become payable on the profits of the self-employed – the lower profits limit – increases to £9,500 for 2020/21. Contributions are payable at the main rate of 9% on profits between this level and the upper profits limit, which remains at £50,000 for 2020/21. Above this, contributions are payable at the rate of 2%.
Voluntary (Class 3) contributions can be paid to make up a shortfall in your contributions record and preserve your entitlement to the state pension. Class 3 contributions rise to £15.30 per week for 2020/21.
Check your contributions record
Speak to us about whether you need to pay additional contributions to ensure that you will qualify for the full state pension when you reach state pension age. You can obtain a pension forecast online.
Personal allowances – use them or lose them
With the end of the 2019/20 tax year approaching, now is a good time to review your available personal allowances for 2019/20 and make sure that they are not wasted.
For 2019/20, the personal allowance is £12,500. However, where income is more than £100,000, the allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 by which income exceeds £100,000. This means that individuals with income of £125,000 or more in 2019/20 do not have a personal allowance. If your income is between £100,000 and £125,000, you will receive a reduced personal allowance.
At the lower end of the income scale, if you are married or in a civil partnership and if you are not able to use all of your personal allowance or your partner is unable to use all of their personal allowance, you can claim the marriage allowance. This works by allowing the person who is unable to use all of their allowance to transfer 10% of their personal allowance — £1,250 for 2019/20 – to their spouse or civil partner. However, this is only allowed if the recipient is a basic rate taxpayer. The marriage allowance is worth £250 to a couple for 2019/20. It can be claimed online.
At the other end of the scale, taxpayers whose income exceeds £100,000 could consider taking steps to reduce their income to below £100,000 to preserve their full personal allowance. Options include making pension contributions or gift aid donations or delaying taking salary or dividends until after 5 April 2020.
All individuals, regardless of the rate at which they pay tax, are entitled to a dividend allowance of £2,000 for 2019/20. In a family company scenario, where family members have not yet used their allowance, paying dividends by 5 April 2020 to mop up the allowances can be a tax-efficient way to extract profits. The use of an alphabet share structure will enable dividends to be tailored to the circumstances of the recipient.
Pensions annual allowance
Making contributions to a registered pension scheme can be tax efficient. You can make pension contributions to the higher of 100% of your earnings and £3,600 (gross), as long as you have sufficient annual allowance available. The annual allowance is set at £40,000 for 2019/20, but is reduced for high earners. If you have already accessed a money purchase pension, you have a reduced allowance of £4,000.
The annual allowance can be carried forwarded for up to three years. However, before using brought forward allowances (earliest year first), you must use the allowance for the current year. Any allowances unused for 2016/17 will be lost if they are not used by 5 April 2020.
Capital gains tax annual exempt amount
Capital gains tax is only payable where net gains and losses for the tax year exceed the annual exempt amount. This is set at £12,000 for 2019/20. Spouses and civil partners have their own annual exempt amount.
Where a disposal is on the cards which will give rise to a capital gain, if the annual exempt amount for 2019/20 has not been used up yet, consider making the disposal before 6 April 2020 to utilise this. Remember, where a spouse or civil partner has an unused exempt amount, assets can be transferred between them on a no gain/no loss basis, making it possible to make use of their annual exempt amount too.
Inheritance tax annual exemption
The inheritance tax annual exemption allows you to give away £3,000 each year without the gift counting as part of your estate for inheritance tax purposes. If it is not used, it can be carried forward to the next tax year, but is then lost. If you do not use your exemption for 2018/19 by 5 April 2020, you will lose it. There are also various other gifts that you can make IHT-free each tax year.
Why not speak to us to find out what action you need to take to make sure your allowances are not wasted.
Reducing your payments on account
Under the self-assessment system, a taxpayer is required to make payments on account of their tax liability where their income tax and Class 4 National Insurance bill for the previous tax year was £1,000 or more, unless at least 80% of their tax is paid at source, such as under PAYE.
When are payments due?
Where payments on account are required, these are due on 31 January in the tax year and 31 July after the end of the tax year. Any balance not covered by the payments on account must be paid by 31 January after the end of the tax year.
Consequently, payments on account for 2019/20 are due on 31 January 2020 and 31 July 2020, with any outstanding balance due by 31 January 2021.
How much is each payment on account?
Each payment on account is 50% of the tax and Class 4 National Insurance liability for the previous tax year. Class 2 National Insurance is not taken into account in computing payments on account, nor is capital gains tax. These are payable by 31 January after the end of the tax year.
Thus, if a taxpayer had a combined tax and Class 4 National Insurance liability of £3,000 for 2018/19, they would need to make payments on account of their 2019/20 liability of £1,500 on 31 January 2020 and 31 July 2020.
Changing the payments on account
If a person’s tax and Class 4 National Insurance liability is constant from year to year, the payments on account will exactly match the liability for the year. However, in practice this is unlikely and most people will under or over-pay. Where there is a shortfall, the excess must be paid by 31 January after the end of the tax year; if the payments on account exceed the liability for the year, the overpayment can be set against the first payment on account for the next year or refunded.
If you know or strongly suspect that your income will be lower for the current tax year than the previous tax year, for example, if your turnover has fallen because you have lost a major customer, you can apply to reduce your payments on account. There are various ways to do this.
If you know this when you file your self-assessment return, you can do it on the return. You can also do it online by:
- signing into your personal tax account;
- selecting the option to view your latest self-assessment return;
- and choosing ‘reduce payments on account’.
You can also apply to reduce payments on account by post, using form SA303.
If your know your tax liability for 2019/20 will be higher than for 2018/19, you do not have to increase your payments on account – you simply pay the excess by 31 January 2021.
A word of warning
If you are tempted to reduce your payments on account to below the level which they should be, remember that interest will be charged on the difference between what you have paid and what the payment on account should have been.
Confused….don’t be, call us we’re here to demystify tax and help you get it right.
Struggling to pay your tax? Set up a time-to-pay agreement
The self-assessment tax return for 2018/19 must be filed by midnight on 31 January 2020, and any tax still owing for 2018/19 must be paid by the same time, along with the first payment on account of the 2019/20 tax liability.
Taxpayers struggling to pay their tax bill should not ignore it in the hope that it goes away. Rather, they could consider setting up a time-to-pay agreement allowing them to spread their tax bill over a number of months.
What is a time-to-pay agreement?
A time-to-pay agreement is simply a payment plan that allows a tax bill to be paid in instalments. Ideally, it should be set up before the date that the payment is due. It can be considered for all taxes, not just those due under self-assessment.
How to set one up?
To set up a time-to-pay agreement, you will need to call HMRC’s Payment Support Service on 0300 200 385.
Information you will need
When calling HMRC, you will need to tell them:
- your 10-digit unique taxpayer reference;
- the amount of the tax bill you are struggling to pay and why;
- what action you have taken to try and get the money to pay the bill;
- how much you can pay now and how long you will need to pay the balance; and
- your bank account details.
HMRC will usually ask for information about your income and expenditure, your assets and what you are planning to do to get your tax payments up to date.
Paying in instalments
HMRC will only allow payment to be made in instalments if they think that you are genuinely unable to pay the bill on time but will be able to do so in the future. Payment under an instalment plan must be made by direct debit on agreed dates. Interest is charged on tax paid after the due date.
Missed the self-assessment deadline?
If you have already missed the self-assessment payment deadline, you should call HMRC’s Self Assessment Payment Helpline on 0300 200 3822 in the first instance rather than the Payment Support Service.
Loan charge – changes announced
The 2019 loan charge applied to loans made through a disguised remuneration loan scheme on or after 6 April 1999 which remained outstanding on 5 April 2019 and in respect of which settlement had not been reached with HMRC by that date. Loans caught by charge crystallised on 5 April 2019 and were treated as employment income on which PAYE tax and National Insurance were due.
The 2019 loan charge did not apply if the loan was repaid by 5 April 2019 or if a settlement was reached with HMRC. Reaching a settlement allowed the liabilities to be settled on better terms.
The loan charge attracted considerable criticism, particularly as regards the potentially devastating consequences for those affected. In September 2019, the Chancellor of the Exchequer commissioned Sir Amyas Morse to lead an independent review into the disguised remuneration loan charge. The review has now concluded and the Government have announced a package of changes to the loan charge. These include removing some loans, including those taken out prior to 9 December 2010, out of the scope of the charge.
What are the key changes?
The key changes arising from the independent review of the disguised remuneration loan charge are as follows:
- the loan charge will only apply to outstanding loans that are made on or after 9 December 2010;
- the loan charge will not apply to loans made prior to 6 April 2016 where the avoidance scheme was disclosed to HMRC and HMRC did not take any action, such as opening an enquiry;
- those affected by the loan charge will be able to choose to spread their outstanding loan balance over three tax year – 2018/19, 2019/20 and 2020/21 – to provide greater flexibility when the loan is taxed (thereby potentially reducing or eliminating any higher rate tax payable);
- voluntary payments (known as ‘voluntary restitution’) which were made to prevent the loan charge from arising and included in a settlement agreement reached since March 2016 will be refunded where the loan charge no longer applies because the loan was made prior to 9 December 2010 or because the loan was made prior to 6 April 2016 and fully disclosed to HMRC and HMRC took no action.
Additional flexibility in paying the charge
Those that remain within the scope of the loan charge will be given more flexibility as regards paying the charge. Taxpayers affected by the charge who do not have disposable assets and who earn less than £50,000 can agree a time-to-pay agreement with HMRC for a minimum of five years. Where the taxpayer earns less than £30,000, HMRC will agree a time-to-pay agreement for a minimum of seven years. Taxpayers that need longer to pay may be able to agree a longer time limit, but will need to provide HMRC with detailed financial information. Under a time to pay agreement, taxpayers will not normally have to pay more than 50% of their disposable income to HMRC.
This is a welcome outcome of the review. Previously, the ability to spread payments was only available where a settlement had been reached with HMRC.
Obtaining a refund
As a result of the changes outlined above, loans made in the period 6 April 1999 to 8 December 2010 are no longer within the scope of the charge. Likewise, loans made prior to 6 April 2016 under a disguised remuneration scheme disclosed to HMRC in respect of which HMRC took no action are also now outside the scope of the charge. Where the charge has been paid in relation to such loans, the taxpayer will be due a refund.
However, taxpayers will need to wait to receive the refunds due as HMRC have stated that they will not be able to process any refunds until the necessary legislation giving statutory effect to the change has been enacted by Parliament. This is expected to become law in summer 2020.
Filing a tax return
Taxpayers affected by the charge who have not submitted a tax return for 2018/19 or reached settlement with HMRC have a number of options available to them. They can either file their 2018/19 tax return by the normal due date of 31 January 2020 with the best estimate of the tax due in respect of their disguised remuneration loan. Alternatively, they can take advantage of an extended deadline and file the return by 30 September 2020. HMRC have stated that they will waive penalties for late filing, late payment and inaccuracies in relation to loan charge entries in these returns. Further, late payment interest will not be charged for the period 1 February 2020 to 30 September 2020 as long as the return is filed by 30 September 2020 and, by that date, either the associated tax is paid or the taxpayer has reached an agreement with HMRC to pay the tax.
HMRC are to write to taxpayers in early 2020 who they know have used a disguised remuneration scheme and who have either paid the loan charge or who may be liable to do so, explaining what the changes mean for them.
Determining worker status using HMRC’s CEST tool
From 6 April 2020 the off-payroll working rules are extended. The impact of the new rules was discussed in the December 2019 Newswire. Under the new rules, medium and large private sector organisations engaging workers providing their services through an intermediary, such as a personal service company, must determine the status of the worker if the services were provided direct to the end client rather than via the intermediary. If, ignoring the intermediary, the worker would be an employee, the off-payroll working rules apply.
HMRC’s Check Employment Status for Tax (CEST) tool can be used to fulfil the requirement to make a status determination.
The tool was updated in November 2019 in preparation for the extension of the off-payroll working rules. On 7 January 2020, the Government announced that they were reviewing the rules to facilitate a smooth implementation. As part of the review, which is due to report in mid-February, they will evaluate the effectiveness of the enhanced CEST tool.
The CEST tool is available on the Gov.uk website.
What is CEST?
CEST – Check Employment Status for Tax – is a tool which has been created by HMRC and which can be used to determine whether, for a particular contract, the off-payroll working rules apply. It can also be used to ascertain whether, for a particular piece of work, a worker is employed or self-employed.
If you are a medium or large private sector organisation which uses workers who provide their services through an intermediary, such as a personal service company, you can use CEST to meet your obligation to undertake a status determination under the off-payroll working rules as they apply from 6 April 2020. You must give the worker a copy of the determination, together with reasons for reaching it. Printing off the CEST decision will tick this box.
Although use of the CEST tool to make a status determination is not compulsory, its use is advised, not least because HMRC will accept by the decision reached by the tool as long as the information entered is correct.
The tool works by asking a series of questions, the answers to which are used to determine the status of the worker.
The CEST tool can be used anonymously. However, it should be noted that there is no facility to save the answers and return to the task later. If the tool is closed before the determination is complete, the answers will be lost. It will also time out if it is left idle for 15 minutes. It is therefore advisable to ensure that you have all the relevant information to hand before starting the determination.
The starting point is the contract of employment. The tool assumes that a contract is in place – this highlights the significance of mutuality of obligation as without mutuality of obligation there can be no contract.
To use the CEST tool, you will need the following information:
- details of the contract;
- the responsibilities of the worker;
- who decides what work needs doing and when and where;
- how the worker is paid;
- whether the engagement includes any corporate benefits or reimbursement of expenses.
It is then simply a case of working through the question and selecting the best match answer from the available options.
Once all the questions have been answered, the user is given the option of reviewing the answers selected before the decision is given.
The CEST tool will use the information provided in response to the questions to give one of the following outcomes:
- off-payroll working rules (IR35) do not apply;
- off-payroll working rules (IR35) apply;
- unable to make a determination (for whether the off-payroll working rules apply);
- self-employed for tax purposes for this work;
- employed for tax purposes for this work;
- unable to make a determination (for employed or self-employed for tax purposes).
It will also set out the reasons for the decision reached.
Use of the tool by a worker
If you are a worker providing your services through a personal service company or other intermediary, you can also use the CEST tool to check your status. From 6 April 2020 onwards, you can use it to check a determination given to you be an end client that is a medium or large private sector organisation; and if you disagree with the determination given, the CEST decision can be used as the basis for a challenge.
Prior to 6 April 2020 and on or after that date where the end client is small private sector organisation, you can use the CEST tool to see if you need to operate the IR35 rules.
HMRC produce detailed guidance on using the CEST tool, which can be found in their Employment Status Manual. Check this out before using the CEST tool.
The whole area of IR35 and employment status is an area of constantly changing legislation and case law. Remember we’re always here to help you to safely navigate your way through the employment tax minefield.
Changes to Property Taxation – 2017 to 2020
2017 Income Tax – Restriction of finance costs for individual landlords
In his 2015 post-election summer Budget, George Osborne informed residential landlords that from April 2017 their ability to claim higher rate tax relief for finance costs was to be withdrawn over a four year period, as follows:
- April 2017 the deduction from property income will be restricted to 75% of finance costs, with the remaining 25% available as a basic rate tax reduction.
- April 2018 the deduction from property income will be restricted to 50% of finance costs, with the other 50% available as a basic rate tax reduction.
- April 2019 the deduction from property income will be restricted to 25% of finance costs, with the other 75% available as a basic rate tax reduction.
- April 2020 all financing costs incurred by a landlord will be given as a basic rate tax reduction.
From April 2020 residential property (not holiday lets) landlords will only receive basic rate tax relief on finance costs.
2019 Extension to Non-resident Capital Gains Tax
Since the start of the current tax year (6 April 2019) non-resident landlords have been required to complete a separate online non-resident Capital Gains Tax return for each property disposal. Including, a computation of gains and losses.
Note: Different rules apply for those who are temporarily non-resident and make disposals during a tax year when you were either not resident in the UK or overseas as part of a split year.
In addition, corporation tax rather than CGT is now chargeable on chargeable gains linked to UK property or land for all non-resident companies.
Non-Resident Capital Gains Tax (NRCGT) is also potentially payable by all non-resident landlords, as the ATED-related gains charge was abolished from 6 April 2019. It now applies to gains arising from the disposal of any type of UK land or property which accrue from 5 April 2015 (residential property) or 5 April 2019 (non-residential property).
2020 Further Capital Gains Tax Restrictions – Coming soon (April 2020)
As part of his 2018 Budget the then Chancellor Philip Hammond announced the intention to restrict the Private Residence Relief (PRR) rules from 6 April 2020 by cutting the last period of ownership from 18 month to just nine months.
Note: As with the 2014 change, the 36-month exemption period is to be retained for owners with a disability or who are in residential care.
As if that wasn’t enough, he also announced that lettings relief (see below) is to be restricted to owners who share occupancy with a tenant.
Lettings relief was introduced in 1980, to allow people to let out spare rooms within their property on a casual basis without losing the benefit of PRR. HMRC says that it has found that lettings relief is being used for purposes beyond the original policy intention, benefitting those who let out a whole dwelling that has, at some stage, been their main residence.
Current lettings relief rules:
Where the property has been let at any time, each owner can claim lettings relief to reduce the taxable capital gain.
- This relief can cover gains of up to £40,000 per owner.
- It is only available if the property has been the owner’s main home for a period.
- It is also capped at the amount of PPR relief due for the period of actual occupation by the owner.
At the same time, Hammond proposed that CGT would be payable “on account” within 30 days of completion for all UK residential properties. Originally intended to be effective from 6 April 2019, to coincide with the new NRCGT rules, implementation of the proposal was delayed until 6 April 2020.
If there’s no gain to report or the gain is covered by exemptions or losses, taxpayers won’t have to complete a property disposal return.
After the end of the tax year, a taxpayer will complete a self-assessment return to disclose the property gain. The ‘on account’ payment will be deducted from the end of CGT liability; this could result in a repayment of CGT for the taxpayer.
Tax Return Tips
The 2018/19 self-assessment tax return must be filed online by midnight on 31 January 2020 if a late filing penalty is to be avoided. What can you do to help ensure this deadline is not missed?
Help us to help you
The tax return season is a very busy time for accountants and tax advisers. With the best will in the world, there is a limit to the number of tax returns that can be filed on 31 January. To ensure that your tax return is filed on time, it is prudent to help us to help you.
- Check what date your accountant needs tax information from you in order to meet the filing deadline, and make sure that you provide the information by that date.
- Collect together all the relevant paperwork and make sure that nothing is missing. This will include your P60 and P11D, dividend vouchers, bank statements, details of trading income and expenses, details of rental income and expenses, details of sales of capital assets and associated expenses, and details of pension contribution and charitable donations.
- Make sure your paperwork is organised and easy to follow, whether supplied digitally or in hard copy format.
- Keep copies of the information supplied to your accountant.
- Advise your accountant of any changes in your personal circumstances – such as change of address, whether you have got married or divorced etc.
- Deal with any queries promptly.
- Pay any tax due on time.
What are the penalties for late returns?
A late filing penalty is charged if the self-assessment tax return is filed late. The normal deadline for filing the 2018/19 tax return online is midnight on 31 January 2020. A later deadline applies if the notice to file a return was issued after 31 October 2019 – this is three months from the date of the notice.
Returns must be filed by 30 December 2019 if you want an underpayment (available for underpayments of up to £3,000) to be collected through PAYE via an adjustment to your tax code. Paper returns had to be filed by 31 October 2019 (or three months from the date of the notice to file where this was issued after 31 July 2019) to avoid a penalty – however, if this deadline was missed, a penalty can be avoided by filing online by 31 January 2020.
Returns filed late attract a late filing penalty of £100. This is charged even if there is no tax to pay or the tax is paid on time. Further penalties are charged if your return has not been filed three months after the due date – from that point daily penalties of £10 per day start to accrue for a maximum of 90 days (£900). At the six month and 12-month point, additional penalties set at the higher of 5% of the tax due and £300 are charged.
Penalties are also charged if tax is paid late, in addition to any interest that may accrue. The trigger dates are 30 days late, six months late and 12 months late. At each date, the penalty is 5% of the tax outstanding at the trigger date.
Is the VAT flat rate scheme still worthwhile for limited cost businesses?
The VAT flat rate scheme is a simplified VAT scheme for smaller traders which allows them to work out the VAT they pay over to HMRC as a fixed percentage of their VAT-inclusive turnover. The fixed rate percentage depends on the business sector in which they operate. The scheme reduces the need to record VAT on purchases separately and reduces the information that must be held digitally under Making tax Digital for VAT. However, for those classed as limited cost businesses, there are potential pitfalls associated with using the scheme.
Who can join the scheme?
The flat rate scheme is open to VAT registered businesses whose VAT-inclusive turnover is not more than £150,000 a year. Once in the scheme, the trader can remain in the scheme as long as their turnover for the year is not more than £230,000 – although HMRC will allow the trader to remain in the scheme if they are satisfied that the turnover for the next 12 months will not exceed £191,500.
Who is a limited cost business?
Special rules apply to limited cost businesses. A business is a limited cost business if the amount it spends on relevant goods is either:
- less than 2% of the business’s VAT flat rate turnover; or
- greater than 2% of the VAT flat rate turnover but less than £1,000 a year (£250 per quarter).
The calculation is performed separately for each VAT quarter; consequently, a business may be a limited cost business for one VAT but not for the next.
What are relevant goods?
Relevant goods are goods used exclusively for the business. Examples of relevant goods are stationery and office expenses, gas and electricity used for the business, stock for a shop, standard software and food used in meals for customers.
However, the list of relevant goods does not include:
- vehicle costs, including fuel (unless the business operates in the transport sector);
- food and drink for you and your staff;
- capital expenditure;
- goods for resale, letting or hiring out where this is not your main business activity;
- goods for disposal such as promotional items, gifts or donations; and
- any services.
Thus, not all purchases on which VAT is suffered are taken into account in assessing whether a business is a limited cost business.
The fixed rate percentage for limited cost businesses
A business that meets the definition of a limited cost business must use a flat rate percentage of 16.5% rather than the one for their business sector.
Doing the maths highlights a potential problem – 16.5% of VAT inclusive turnover is 19.8% of net turnover (16.5% x 120)/100 = 19.8%), so the business will pay almost all the VAT it charges customers (20% of net turnover) over to HMRC, with virtually no margin to cover the input tax suffered.
If the nature of the business is such that its expenditure on relevant goods is low, so that it is classed a limited cost business, but the business has relatively high expenditure on non-relevant goods, such as fuel, the flat rate scheme may not be worthwhile as the business will not recover all its input VAT.
Limited cost businesses should review their position to ascertain whether the flat rate scheme remains worthwhile. If they are not recovering their input tax (with the result that it is costing them to use the scheme), they can consider leaving the scheme and using traditional VAT accounting instead. This will be more work, but depending on the amounts involved, may be worthwhile.
Alternatively, if turnover is below the de-registration limit, set at £83,000, the business can consider de-registering and coming out of VAT.
Guidance on the flat rate scheme can be found in VAT Notice 733.
Off-payroll working – plan ahead for the changes
The tax playing field is not a level one – the tax and National Insurance take where a worker is employed is higher than that where that worker provides his or her services through a personal service company and extracts profits in the form of a small salary plus dividends. From the engager’s perspective, this is also beneficial as there is no employer National Insurance to pay. Unsurprisingly, HMRC are not happy about this. While anti-avoidance legislation has existed for some time (IR35), compliance has been low. To address this, new off-payroll working rules were introduced from 6 April 2017, applying where a worker supplies his or her services through an intermediary, such as a personal service company, to an end client which is a public sector body. These rules are being extended from 6 April 2020; from that date they will also apply where the end client is a medium or large private sector organisation. The existing IR35 rules will continue to apply where services are provided through an intermediary to a ‘small’ private sector organisation.
The extension of the rules will affect engagers and contractors alike – it is now time to prepare for the changes ahead.
What is changing?
Off-payroll working is basically what is says on the tin – working in such a way that the worker is not paid through the payroll.
The original off-payroll working rules were the IR35 rules which were introduced to target perceived avoidance where services were provided through an intermediary but, looking through that intermediary, the relationship between the worker and the end client was essentially that of employer and employee. In this scenario, the worker is off-payroll – instead the intermediary bills the client. To recover the employment taxes that HMRC regard as being due, the intermediary is treated as making a deemed payment to the worker on 5 April at the end of the tax year on which tax and National Insurance are due.
To address poor compliance with the IR35 rules and the difficulties associated with policing them, the rules were changed from 6 April 2017 where the end client is a public sector body. Under these rules, responsibility for determining whether the worker would be an employee if the services were supplied direct rather than through an intermediary (and thus whether the rules apply) was moved from the intermediary to the public sector end client. Where the rules apply, the fee payer must deduct tax and National Insurance from payments made to the worker’s personal service company or other intermediary.
From 6 April 2020, these rules will also apply where the end client is a medium or large private sector organisation which engages workers providing their services through an intermediary.
What do engagers need to do?
If you are a private sector organisation which uses workers who provide their services through a personal service company or other intermediary, the first task is to identify whether you are within the scope of the extended rules. This will be the case if you are a ‘medium’ or ‘large’ organisation.
Where the rules apply, the organisation will need to:
- Determine the worker’s employment status if the intermediary is ignored.
- Supply the worker and other parties in the chain (such as a third-party fee payer or agency) with a copy of the determination and the reasons for it.
- Deduct tax and National Insurance from payments made to the worker’s intermediary where the status determination is that the worker would be an employee if service were supplied direct to the end client.
Is the end client ‘medium’ or ‘large’?
The test here is borrowed from the Companies Act 2006, and the extended off-payroll working rules will apply unless the engaging organisation is ‘small’. A small company is one which meets at least two of the following tests:
- annual turnover is not more than £10.2 million;
- balance sheet total is not more than £5.1 million;
- the number of employees is not more than 50.
The test is modified in its application to unincorporated bodies.
An organisation that is ‘small’ is outside the scope of the extended off-payroll working rules – the intermediary must continue to apply IR35 as now.
Determining the worker’s status
The usual employment status tests apply to determine the status of the worker, if the intermediary is ignored. The easiest way to make a determination is to use HMRC’s Check Employment Status for Tax (CEST) tool, which is available online. The tool asks a series of questions and uses the answers to provide a result as to the worker’s status. An advantage of using CEST is that as long as the information used is accurate, HMRC will stand by the result.
Detailed guidance on the CEST tool can be found in HMRC’s Employment Status Manual.
Paying the worker
If the status determination shows that the worker would be an employee of the end client if the intermediary is taken out of the equation, the fee payer must calculate the deemed payment (which is treated as earnings) and deduct tax and National Insurance when making the payment to the worker’s personal service company. The fee payer is simply the person who pays the worker – this may be the end client or a third party, such an agency.
The fee payer must report the pay and deductions to HMRC on a full payment submission under real time information. The submission should indicate that the worker is an off-payroll worker. The fee payer can either use their existing PAYE scheme or open a new one for this purpose.
Calculating the deemed payment
The deemed payment is the amount which is treated as earnings for tax and National Insurance purposes. It is calculated as follows.
- Work out the value of payments to the worker’s intermediary having first deducted any VAT charged.
- Deduct the direct cost of materials that have or will be used by the worker in providing his or her services.
- Deduct any expenses that would be deductible for tax purposes if the worker was employed.
- The resulting amount is the deemed payment.
If the result of the above calculation is nil or negative, there is no deemed payment.
What do the changes mean for contractors?
If you provide services through a personal service company, the new rules will affect you if you provide your services to a medium or large private sector organisation. You will no longer be responsible for deciding whether the IR35 rules apply – instead your client will determine your employment status, and provide you with a copy of their determination. If you do not agree, you can appeal. This should be done in writing to your client explaining why you disagree with their determination. Your client has 45 days to respond. It is sensible to undertake your own determination using the CEST tool.
Where the rules apply, you will no longer be paid gross – the fee payer will deduct tax and National Insurance from payments made to your intermediary (although you will receive credit for the tax and National Insurance paid when working out the tax and National Insurance that you owe).
If you supply your services to clients that are small, the new rules will not affect you. You should continue to apply the IR35 rules as now.
Contractors operating through personal service companies or other intermediaries are advised to check that they are complying with IR35 – where a worker is found to be within the off-payroll working rules post 6 April 2020, HMRC may look carefully for compliance with IR35 prior to that date. Now is the time to check that your house is in order. If you are within the new rules, you may also wish to consider whether it remains beneficial to supply your services via an intermediary, or whether going on-payroll is a lot less hassle.
Engagers and contractors should plan ahead for the changes and make sure that they understand how the new rules will work and the impact that they will have on you or your organisation.
That said, it would appear that the new rules are not yet set in stone. On the 2nd of December while speaking on BBC Radio 4’s Money Box programme Sajid Javid, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, pledged to review the off-payroll IR35 legislation. Mr. Javid said:
“I want to make sure that the proposed changes are right to take forward. We’ve already said that we’re on the side of self-employed people. We will be having a review and I think it makes sense to include IR35 in that review.”
MTD – announces more time for digital links…what does this mean?
On 17 October HMRC made a much-welcomed announcement that some businesses will qualify for an extension to the MTD for VAT (MTDfV) existing twelve months ‘soft-landing’ period.
In order to explain the significance of the extension, it is best to reprise some of the basics of what is required in order to achieve compliance with MTDfv.
Specifically, the need for a VAT-registered entity with annual VATable turnover greater than £85k, to keep digital VAT records and file MTD-compliant VAT returns.
Section 4 of HMRC VAT notice 700/22 ‘Making Tax Digital for VAT’ covers the requirements for digital record keeping, a fundamental of ensuring compliance with MTD.
- Almost all VAT registered businesses with annual VAT-able turnover in excess of £85K are required to comply with MTDfV rules.
- To achieve compliance, they must keep and preserve certain records and accounts digitally within functional compatible software.
- Functional compatible software can be a software program, or set of software programs, products or applications,
that must be able to:
- record and preserve digital records (see paragraph 4.3);
- provide to HMRC information and returns from data held in those digital records by using the API platform; and
- receive information from HMRC using the API platform.
With only limited exceptions, once VAT data has been digitally recorded into a business’ chosen accounting software any subsequent transfer, recapture or modification of it must be carried out using digital links.
While for many, everything required to achieve compliance can be done from within third-party software. For others, it can mean resorting to transferring data between disparate pieces of software in order to achieve compliance. With each piece of software needing to be ‘digitally linked’, to create a digital journey ending with the submission of an MTD-compliant VAT return.
Section 4.2 .1 of 700/22 describes a ‘digital link’ as, “…. a transfer or exchange of data is made, or can be made, electronically between software programs, products or applications”.
Digital links includes:
- linked cells in spreadsheets;
- emailing a spreadsheet containing digital records so the information can be imported into another software product;
- transferring a set of digital records onto a portable device (for example, a pen drive, memory stick, or flash drive) and physically giving this to someone else who then imports that data into their software;
- XML, CSV import and export, and downloads and uploads of files; and
- automated data transfers.
In the context of MTDfV, a soft-landing period is an amnesty period during which, provided a VAT registered entity required to comply with MTDfV regulations has tried its best to satisfying the digital links rules, and that for reasons such as their software providers are still working on delivering the required functionality, has found it impractical to comply, no penalty for non-compliance will be issued.
Prior to the launch of MTDfV, HMRC announced there would be one-year soft-landing period for all businesses who, after trying, were initially unable meet the legal requirement for digital links. The period-of-soft-landing was, and remains to be, an essential element of ensuring a smooth roll out of MTDfV.
Why…simply…without the soft-landing many businesses, without fully functionally compatible software at the launch of MTDfV, would have been left facing fines for failing to have digital links in place, even though, they and or their software providers were doing their best to ensure that everything required to achieve compliance would be ready as soon as possible. Which, HMRC realised was not a good position to leave those willing to be compliant in.
The initial soft-landing period
For those affected, the initial soft-landing period commenced from the first day, of the first return period, after 31 March 2019 for most mandated businesses, or after 30 September for a small number of deferred businesses. Those with the most complex of VAT affairs.
As announced on 17 October, businesses with complex or legacy IT systems, who are struggling to have digital links in place within the existing one-year soft-landing window, are now able to apply for additional time to put the required digital subject to meeting certain qualifying criteria.
Where a business qualifies, the additional time will be granted as a specific direction from HMRC.
It’s important to note that there is no blanket extension to the soft-landing period and it appears that HMRC will take a fairly strict line on who does and doesn’t qualify.
Why the extension
Many businesses use bespoke software, specifically tailored to their market sector, to manage bookings, keep records, stocks, etc. Where this is the case, it is not uncommon common for there to be a need to manually post totals from one part of a system to another on a weekly, monthly or other basis.
While such transfers will not be acceptable once the soft-landing expires, replacing them with a digital link(s) is proving, for some, to be difficult.
In much the same way, many businesses with internally developed systems are finding they may need additional time to get their, often very different, software packages to talk to each other. This is particularly proving to be the case for VAT registered entities in VAT groups.
In recent months, AAT and its fellow professional bodies have highlighted to HMRC the difficulties some businesses are facing when trying to ensure they have digital links next year.
This is a particular problem in industries that use specialist software, which can often be difficult (or even impossible) to link to accounting and VAT systems.
How generous is HMRC likely to be?
While any business can apply for an extension, they will only get one if HMRC accept that one is needed.
Section 4.2 .1.3 sets out various criteria which need to be met for digital link deadline extensions. Key amongst these is that it must be “unachievable and not reasonable” to have digital links in place in the normal one-year soft-landing period.
HMRC are very clear that an extension will only be granted in “exceptional circumstances”. The department does not accept that the potential cost of achieving compliance with the digital links requirements is sufficient grounds for applying for an extension.
Furthermore, it expects businesses to make every effort to comply with ‘digital links requirements’.
HMRC examples of what might be considered “unachievable and not reasonable”, include:
- part of an IT system is incapable of importing and exporting data to or from another part, and it isn’t possible to update or replace it in time; and
- a business is in the process of updating or replacing its IT system and the planned implementation date is not before the end of the original soft-landing period.
Even where an extension application is granted by HMRC it will not be a permanent relaxation of the requirement for robust end-to-end digital links.
- Businesses still have to consider how they will put digital links in place and will need to set out a clear explanation and timetable for when and how this will be implemented in their application to HMRC.
- The length of any extension will be decided on a case by case basis, though HMRC has indicated that they do not expect that this will ordinarily be what businesses should do.
If any business thinks they may benefit from an extension, they should first look at the detail in the VAT Notice whether they meet HMRC’s criteria. If they believe they do, then a formal application has to be made to HMRC. The VAT Notice sets out the information which this must contain, including an explanation it is “unachievable and not reasonable” to have digital links in place by the end of the normal soft-landing period, a map of current VAT systems, a timetable plan to put digital links in place and details of controls for manual transfers of data in the meantime.
Applications have to be submitted before the current soft-landing-on-digital-links expires. Given the amount of information required businesses may want to make a start on their applications sooner rather than later.
Beware the trivial benefits gift card trap
The tax exemption for trivial benefits is a handy exemption as it allows employers to provide employees with low cost benefits tax-free. However, where the benefit is in the form of the gift card, it is easy to fall foul of the rules inadvertently.
Scope of the exemption
The trivial benefits exemption applies where the cost to the employer of providing the benefit is not more than £50 and the following conditions are met:
- the benefit is in kind; benefits in the form of cash or a voucher that is redeemable for cash do not count;
- the benefit is not given in return for work done; and
- the benefit is not provided under a salary sacrifice or flexible remuneration arrangement.
The value of trivial benefits that can be provided to a director of a close company is capped at £300 per year; otherwise there is no limit on the number of trivial benefits that an employee can enjoy in a tax year.
The problem with gift cards
At first sight, providing an employee with a gift card which is topped up at regular intervals may seem a handy way to take advantage of the trivial benefits exemption. It would be reasonable to assume that as long as each top up is less than £50 and the other conditions for the exemption to apply are met, the top-ups would all be tax-free. However, HMRC take a different view. Their stance is that the benefit of the gift card is a single benefit and the cost of that benefit is the total amount put on the card throughout the tax year.
An employer wishes to take advantage of the trivial benefits exemption and provides an employee with a gift card for a popular store. The initial gift card cost the employer £20. The employer tops up the gift card by a further £20 each month. As each top-up is less than £50, the employer is confident that the trivial benefits exemption applies.
However, HMRC’s position is that the cost to the employer of providing the benefit for the tax year in question is £240 (12 x £20). As this is more than £50, the trivial benefits exemption does not apply. The benefit is taxable as a benefit in kind and is also liable to employer Class 1A National Insurance. It must also be reported to HMRC on the employee’s P11D.
A similar problem could arise with the provision of a season ticket.
To avoid falling foul of the gift card trap, make sure each benefit is separate from other benefits given to the employee in a tax year. Where gift cards are used, give the employee a separate gift card each time (perhaps varying the type of card), rather than simply topping up an existing card.
Voluntary NICs – Should you pay?
The single-tier state pension is payable to individuals who reach state pension age on or after 6 April 2016. Entitlement to the state pension is dependent on having been paid or credited with sufficient National Insurance contributions. Individuals whose contributions record is insufficient for a full state pension can boost their pension by making voluntary contributions.
Is your contributions record sufficient?
To qualify for the full single tier state pension, you need 35 qualifying years. A reduced state pension is paid to individuals who have less than 35 qualifying years but at least ten. Individuals with less than ten qualifying years are not eligible for a state pension. Only the individual’s own contributions are taken into account – contributions by a spouse or civil partner do not provide any pension entitlement.
Check your state pension
In order to decide whether it is necessary to consider paying voluntary National Insurance contributions, you first need to ascertain your state pension entitlement. This can be done by getting a state pension forecast online. The online service allows an individual to:
- check how much state pension they could get — their state pension forecast;
- when they will receive the state pension; and
- how to increase it, if they can.
The service can only be used by individuals who have not already reached state pension age.
Building up qualifying years
The main way in which a person builds up qualifying years for state pension purposes is via the payment of National Insurance contributions. For the year to be a qualifying year, contributions must be paid in respect of all weeks in that tax year.
Where the individual is employed, it is the payment of primary (employee’s) Class 1 National Insurance contributions that provides the means for building up a contributions record. Although no employee Class 1 contributions are payable until earnings reach the primary threshold (set at £166 per week for 2019/20), contributions are deemed to be paid at a notional zero rate once contributions exceed the lower earnings limit (£118 per week for 2019/20). This means that as long as the employee earns at least £118 per week throughout the tax year, the year will be a qualifying one for state pension purposes.
For the self-employed, it is the payment of Class 2 contributions (set at £3 per week for 2019/20) that provides the mechanism for building up entitlement to the state pension and contributory benefits. The self-employed also pay Class 4 contributions on their profits, but this does not confer any pension or benefit entitlement.
Some individuals who are not paying National Insurance contributions may be able to get National Insurance credits. These will help secure qualifying years. Those able to benefit from National Insurance credits include parents and foster parents claiming child benefit for a child under the age of 12, certain people on jobseekers allowance and carers. More information on National Insurance credits can be found on the Gov.uk website.
Topping up with voluntary contributions
Individuals with a shortfall in their contributions record can top it up by paying voluntary (Class 3) National Insurance contributions. Voluntary contributions can be paid to buy additional years or to turn a non-qualifying year into a qualifying year by making voluntary contributions for weeks for which contributions have not been paid or treated as paid.
Class 3 contributions are expensive at £15 per week, so should only be paid where it is beneficial to do so. If a person has, or will have by the time they retire, 35 qualifying years, there is nothing to be gained by paying voluntary contributions. If an individual has slightly less than ten qualifying years, paying voluntary contributions to increase their qualifying years to ten may be worthwhile as this will secure a minimum state pension.
At 2019/20 rates, it will cost £700 (52 weeks @ £15 per week) to buy an additional year – at 2019/20 rates this will increase the state pension by £4.82 a week (£57.04 a year). Thus, a person needs to live at least 12 years and 3 months to recoup the cost of each year of voluntary contributions.
Class 3 contributions must be paid within six years from the end of the tax year to which they relate. Extended time limits apply to certain years.
Class 2 rather than Class 3
The self-employed are only liable to pay Class 2 contributions if their profits exceed the small profits threshold, set at £6,365 for 2019/20. Where profits from self-employment are less than this, Class 2 contributions can be paid voluntarily. If an individual has a shortfall in their contributions record and is eligible but not required to pay Class 2 contributions, at £3 per week for 2019/20, this offers a much cheaper option of plugging a pension shortfall than paying Class 3 contributions of £15 per week.
Review your pension forecast and ascertain whether payment of voluntary contributions is worthwhile.
Starting a business? Remember to claim relief for pre-trading expenses
When starting a business, whether as a sole trader, a company or in partnership, there is inevitably a preparatory period before trading commences during which expenditure is incurred in setting up the business. Depending on the nature of the business, the set-up period can be long and complex and the expenditure incurred during this phase may be considerable. It is therefore important that opportunities to claim relief for pre-trading expenditure are not overlooked.
When does trading commence?
To identify any pre-trading expenditure, it is necessary to determine when trading starts and whether expenditure is incurred while trading or prior to trading. The point at which a business starts to trade will not always be clear cut – the transition from set-up to trading may be very gradual, such that it is difficult to pin point the exact point at which trading commenced. HMRC take the view that a trade cannot commence until the trader:
- is in a position to provide those goods or services which it is, or will be, his or her trade to provide; and
- does so, or offers to do so, by way of a trade.
Whether or not a trade has commenced, is a matter of fact in each particular case. It is important to note that for trading to have started, the trade does not need to be on a large scale, although the production of a small number of items as a trial run will not necessarily mean that the trade has commenced.
Typical pre-trading expenses
Although the specific expenses that will be incurred in the preparatory period will depend on the nature of the business, typical expenses when setting up a business may include:
- expenses incurred in securing business premises, whether rented or purchased;
- computer expenses (hardware and software);
- website costs;
- marketing and promotion;
- purchase of stock;
- legal and professional fees;
- purchase of plant and equipment; and
- travel expenses.
It is important to distinguish between expenses incurred for the purpose of the business and those which are private expense or which have a mixed-use element. It is also vital to identify whether the expense is capital or revenue in nature as this affects the way in which relief is given.
Relief for expenses
Once the business has started to trade, relief is given for revenue expenses as a deduction from profits to the extent that they are incurred wholly and exclusively for the purposes of the business.
As far as capital expenditure is concerned, the mechanism for giving relief depends on whether the trader prepares accounts under the traditional accruals basis or using the cash basis. Where the accruals basis is used, relief for capital expenditure is given in the form of capital allowances (to the extent that the expenditure is qualifying expenditure). By contrast, where accounts are prepared under the cash basis, capital expenditure is deducted in the computation of profits unless the capital expenditure is of a type for which a deduction is expressly prohibited; land, buildings and cars fall into this category.
Expenses incurred pre-commencement
The rules for determining whether a pre-trading expense qualifies for relief mirror those for determining whether relief is available for an expense incurred once trading has begun; an expense incurred prior to the commencement of trading will qualify for relief ,if it would have qualified for relief had it been incurred once trading had commenced. Therefore, for a pre-trading expense to be deductible, it must have been incurred wholly and exclusively for the purposes of the trade. In addition, the expenditure must have been incurred in the period of seven years before the trade commenced; no relief is available for expenditure incurred prior to this. Where the set-up period is likely to be long, this should be borne in mind.
Care should be taken, particularly where the accruals basis is used, in relation to expenses paid in advance, such as rent or insurance paid prior to the commencement of the trade which relates to a period after the trade has begun. Under the accruals basis, such expenses would be relievable as trading expenses once the trade has commenced, and consequently do not count as pre-trading expenses. Likewise, no relief is given under the pre-trading expenses rules for stock purchased before the start of the trade, as the cost of stock is deducted in calculating profits once the trade has started.
The relief is available for both income tax and corporation tax purposes.
How relief is given
Relief for qualifying pre-trading expenses incurred in the seven years prior to the start of the trade is given by treating the expenses as if they were incurred on the first day of trading. In this way, the expenses are deducted in computing the profits of the first accounting period.
Availability of capital allowances
As noted above, where accounts are prepared using the accruals basis, relief for capital expenditure is given by means of capital allowances. Where accounts are prepared in this way, any capital expenditure incurred in the seven years before the start of the trade which is of a type that qualifies for capital allowances, is treated as having been incurred on the first day of trading. Capital allowances (whether the annual investment allowance or writing down allowances) can be claimed for the first accounting period.
Necessity of keeping good records
In order to maximise the relief for pre-trading expenses, it is necessary to know what those expenses are when they were incurred. Good record keeping is therefore essential. If you are thinking of setting up a business, keep a record of everything that you spend. You should also keep invoices and receipts to back up the expenditure. Setting up a separate business bank account as early as possible is also a good idea to keep expenditure on the business separate from any private expenditure.
Can you claim small business rate relief?
Business rates are payable on non-domestic properties such as offices, shops and factories. The rates are worked out on the rateable value of the property, but there are various reliefs available including small business rate relief. The relief is not given automatically and many businesses may be overpaying, not realising they are entitled to the relief. However, all is not lost; claims for relief can be made retrospectively, giving rise to a repayment of overpaid business rates.
The business rates calculation
Business rates are worked out by applying the relevant multiplier (set in terms of pence in the pound) to the rateable value of the property. The most recent valuation took place in 2015 and is used as the basis for business rate calculations from April 2017 onwards. You can check the rateable value of your business property online. The rateable value is based on the annual rent that could be expected to be received if the property were let on a commercial basis.
In England there is a standard multiplier and a small business multiplier. The standard multiplier, set at 50.4p for 2019/20, applies to business properties with a rateable value of £51,000 or more. The small business multiplier, applying to business properties with a rateable value below £51,000, is set at 49.1p for 2019/20. The multipliers for the City of London are higher – the standard multiplier is 51p and the small business multiplier is 49.7p. In Wales, there is a single multiplier of 52.6. So, for example, the annual business rates for a property with a rateable value of £20,000 outside London would be £9,820 – found by applying the small business multiplier of 49.1p to the rateable value of £20,000.
Small business rate relief
In England, small business rate relief is available where the business has only one property and the rateable value of that property is less than £15,000.
Full relief is available where the rateable value is less than £12,000 – business with a single property which has a rateable value of less than £12,000 pay no business rates.
Taper relief is available where the rateable value is between £12,001 and £15,000. The taper reduces the amount of relief from 100% for properties with a rateable value of £12,000 to 0% for properties with a rateable value of £15,000.
The percentage reduction is found by applying the following formula:
(£15,000 – x) / (£15,000 – £12,000) x 100%.
A small business operates from offices with a rateable value of £12,750. The business is based in Norfolk.
The business rates before deducting small business relief are found by applying the small business multiplier of 49.1p to the rateable value of £12,750, giving a figure of £6260.25.
Taper relief is available. The percentage reduction is 75%.
Thus, applying small business relief reduces the business rates by 75% to £1,565.06.
Claim the relief
Unless a claim is made, the business will not benefit from the relief. The claim must be made to the relevant council, either in writing or online. Once a claim is made, it will apply to future years.
Claims can be backdated, so check bills since the start of the current system in April 2017. Many businesses do not realise that small business rates relief is not given automatically and may be due sizeable repayments. Unless a claim is made, they will continue to overpay.
File your tax return by 30 December
The 2018/19 self-assessment tax return must be filed online by midnight on 31 January 2020 if a late filing penalty is to be avoided. A later deadline applies where the notice to file a return was not given until after 31 October 2019 – in this case the deadline is three months after the date of the notice. However, it can be beneficial to file your tax return by 30 December 2019 rather than waiting until 31 January 2020.
Why file by 30 December?
Filing your 2018/19 tax return online by 30 December 2019 may mean that any underpayment can be collected through an adjustment to your tax code. This may be preferable to having to pay it in one instalment by 31 January 2020; instead collection of the underpayment is spread throughout the following tax year.
The option to have tax collected through the tax code is available where:
- the return is filed online by 30 December 2019 or a paper return was filed by 31 October 2019;
- the underpayment is less than £3,000; and
- the taxpayer already pays tax under PAYE, for example, because they are an employee or because they receive a company pension.
However, HMRC will not collect an underpayment via an adjustment to a tax code if the taxpayer does not have sufficient PAYE income to allow for the repayment or if as a result of coding out the underpayment, the taxpayer would pay more than 50% of their PAYE income in tax or would pay more than twice as much tax on their PAYE income as they would do otherwise.
No need to tell HMRC you want an underpayment coded out
Where the tax return is submitted online by the 30 December deadline and the conditions for coding out an underpayment are met, HMRC will automatically adjust the taxpayer’s tax code for 2020/21 to collect the underpayment for 2018/19.
If you have just been organised in filing your tax return ahead of time and do not want an underpayment coded out, you must let HMRC know by ticking the relevant box on your tax return.
How does the adjustment work?
The underpayment is collected by grossing it up at the taxpayer’s marginal rate of tax and treating it as a deduction from the personal allowances to which the taxpayer is entitled. For example, if an employee has a tax underpayment of £300 for 2018/19 relating to, say, dividend income and the taxpayer pays tax at 40%, the relevant adjustment to the tax code is £750 (£750 @ 40% = £300). Assuming the taxpayer has a personal allowance of £12,500 for 2020/21 and no other adjustments to their code, their allowances will be reduced by £750 to £11,750, giving rise to a tax code for 2020/21 of 1175L.
The underpayment is collected in equal instalments over the course of the tax year – where the employee is paid monthly, the £300 underpayment would be collected in 12 instalments of £25. This may be much less painful than paying it all in one hit.
Consider whether it would be beneficial to file your tax return by midnight on 30 December 2019 to enable a tax underpayment to be deducted from your pay.
Parties and Presents
The taxman is not entirely lacking in Christmas spirit and the tax system features a number of exemptions which enable employers to put on a party for staff or to give employees a seasonal gift without triggering an unwanted tax liability. However, the taxman’s generosity is limited, and the message here is to keep it modest.
Staff Christmas parties
Although there is no specific exemption for Christmas parties, there is one for annual parties and functions and it is this exemption which provides the opportunity for staff – and their guests – to enjoy a Christmas party without being hit with tax charge once the decorations have been packed away. As with all exemptions, availability is contingent on the associated conditions being met.
Function must be an annual function
As far as the tax exemption is concerned, not all functions are equal. The tax exemption only applies to annual parties and functions. Consequently, if you hold a staff Christmas party every year, it is possible to take advantage of the exemption to keep it tax-free. However, if the Christmas party is not a regular occurrence and you decide to hold a party for staff this year as a one-off, for example to celebrate a successful year, the exemption will not apply and your employees will be taxed on the resulting benefit in kind.
Exempt amount capped at £150 per head
The exemption only applies to an annual function if the cost per head is £150 or less including VAT. This is simply the total cost of the function divided by the total number of people attending, including both employees and any guests. If accommodation or transport is also provided, these are taken into account in working out the total cost of the function. VAT is also included, even if this is subsequently recovered where the employer is VAT-registered.
If there is only one annual function in the tax year, it will be tax and National Insurance free as long as the cost per head figure is not more than £150.
Exceeding the £150 per head limit
The £150 per head figure is an exemption not an allowance and if the cost of the function is more than £150 per head, the total amount is taxable, not just the excess over £150. This means that if the cost per head is £155 per head, an employee attending alone would be treated as receiving a taxable benefit with a taxable value of £155. Where an employee attends with a partner, the employee is taxed on their partner’s attendance too – in this case the taxable benefit would be £310. The employer will also face a Class 1A National Insurance charge where the provision of the party is taxable on employees as a benefit in kind.
Going slightly over the £150 cost per head limit can be expensive – there is no tax or employer-only Class 1A National Insurance to pay for an annual party where the cost per head is £149; however, the story is very different if it creeps up to £151 per head. The moral here is to keep a close eye on the costs.
More than one annual function
Where there is more than one annual function in the year, the exemption can be allocated in such a way as to minimises the overall tax bill. Annual functions will all be tax-free as long as the total cost of all the functions is not more than £150 per head. For example, if a company holds an annual Christmas party costing £50 per head and a summer barbecue costing £40 per head, both will remain tax free as the total cost per head figure of £90 is less than the permitted £150.
If the total cost of all functions is more than £150, the exemption can cover whole functions in such a way as to give the best result. For example, if there are three annual functions costing respectively, £70 per head, £60 per head and £40 per head, at first sight the exemption is best applied to the £70 and £60 functions (a total cost of £130 per head). The remaining £20 is lost as it cannot be set against the £40 per head function – only whole functions can qualify for the exemption.
The best result may be different if guests are invited to some functions but not to others. In the last example, if the employees bring a guest to the £40 function, the exemption is best utilised against the £70 and £40 per head events. Leaving the £40 function in charge will mean that the employee suffers a taxable benefit of £80 (£40 for the employee and £40 for their guest); leaving the £60 function in charge reduces the total taxable benefit to £60. There is no substitute for doing the sums.
Consider a PSA
If a taxable benefit arises in respect of the staff Christmas party, either because the function is not an annual function or because the cost per head figure exceeds the £150 exempt limit, consider using a PAYE Settlement Agreement (PSA) to settle the tax liability on behalf of your employees to preserve the goodwill gesture. A PSA is an agreement with the tax inspector under which the employer pays the tax and associated National Insurance on behalf of their employees. Information on using a PSA can be found online.
Deduct the cost in computing profits
The general prohibition on tax deductions for entertainment expenses does not apply to staff entertaining. Consequently, the costs of holding a staff Christmas party can be deducted in computing the employer’s taxable business profits.
At Christmas, businesses may wish to show their appreciation by making gifts to staff and to customers and suppliers. The rules on gifts can be quite complicated and it is important to understand when a tax charge may arise on the recipient and what the business can deduct when computing its profits.
It is possible to give staff small seasonal gifts without triggering an associated tax charge. Typical gifts would include a bottle of wine, a small hamper, a box of chocolates and suchlike. The relevant exemption here is the one for trivial benefits which enables employees to enjoy small non-cash benefits costing not more than £50. Unless the employee is a director of a close company, there is no limit on the number of tax-free gifts of £50 and under that an employee can enjoy each year; for close company directors, there is a £300 annual limit.
There are conditions which must be met for the exemption to apply. The gifts must not be in cash or in the form of a cash voucher and it must cost you £50 or less to provide. Further, the gift cannot be reward for services, and there must be no contractual obligation to provide it. Keeping seasonal gifts within the trivial benefits exemption will prevent a tax charge from arising.
Detailed guidance on the trivial benefits exemption can be found in HMRC’s Employment Income Manual.
Cash gifts and cash vouchers are liable to PAYE and employer and employee National Insurance.
If a tax liability does arise, for example because the cost is more than £50, it will be taxed on the employee as a benefit in kind and will need to be reported to HMRC on the employee’s P11D. An employer-only Class 1A National Insurance liability will also arise. Again, the employer could consider using a PSA to meet the liability on behalf of the employees.
As with staff parties, the employer can deduct the cost of staff gifts when computing their taxable profits.
Gifts to third parties
It is also traditional at Christmas to give a small gift to key customers and suppliers as a ‘thank you’. However, the rules here are harsh; gifts the third parties are deemed to be entertaining in respect of which a tax deduction is denied. There is however a workaround – the gift will be tax deductible if the cost does not exceed £50 per person per tax year and it features a conspicuous advert for the business. In addition, it cannot be food, drink or tobacco (or a voucher exchangeable for food, drink or tobacco). Consequently, to benefit from a deduction for gifts to third parties, go for a business diary or a pen featuring an advert for the business rather than a bottle of wine.
Keeping it tax-free
To keep Christmas parties and seasonal gifts tax-free, the trick it to keep it small and make use of the available exemptions. Plan ahead and make sure that the cost figures do not creep up.
Have you got your EORI number?
UK businesses will need an ‘Economic Operator Registration Identification’ (EORI) number to trade with the EU after Brexit.
If there is a ‘no-deal’ Brexit
In the event that the UK leaves the EU on 31 October 2019 without a deal, businesses will need an EORI number that starts with GB to move goods in and out of the UK.
An EORI consists of a 12-digit number following the GB prefix. It includes the VAT registration number where the business is VAT registered.
How do we get an EORI number?
Depending on whether a business is registered for VAT, an EORI number may be issued automatically or, where this is not the case, the business can apply for one.
When is an EORI number issued automatically?
In August and early September, HMRC sent out EORI numbers automatically to businesses that are registered for VAT and which had not previously applied for an EORI number. If you are VAT registered, check that you have received your number.
How do we apply?
Where a business is not registered for VAT, and it is likely that it will want to move goods in and out of the UK post Brexit, it will need to apply for an EORI number.
The application can be done online. The process is straightforward and should take less than 10 minutes, with the EORI number being sent out within 5 working days. Unless, HMRC need to undertake additional security checks.
Trading with Ireland
An EORI number is not needed if goods are only moved between Northern Ireland and Ireland. However, one is required for imports and exports that move directly between Ireland and Great Britain without going through Northern Ireland.
EU EORI numbers
Businesses that want to trade with the EU post-Brexit will need an EU EORI number, starting with the country code of the EU country that they wish to trade with. This should be obtained from the Customs authority of the EU country that the business will first trade with post Brexit.
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Happy anniversary — auto-enrolment’s third anniversary obligations
Auto-enrolment is now up well and truly up and running, and the obligations that it imposes on employers are on-going. The most notable being, employers must undertake a re-enrolment and re-declaration exercise every three years.
Re-enrolment and re-declaration are legal duties and employers may be fined for non-compliance.
What employers must do
All employers must complete a triennial review where they will need to choose a re-enrolment date, assess and re-enrol certain staff, write to them to confirm their intended actions and complete a re-declaration of compliance.
Re-enrolment duties must be completed approximately three years after the original automatic enrolment staging date.
At the time, employers must complete a re-declaration of compliance to tell the Pensions Regulator (TPR) how you have completed your duties.
Re-enrolment and the re-declaration of compliance are legal duties. With failure to comply within the approved timescale punishable by a fine.
Four basic steps
There are four basic steps to the re-enrolment process but, as always, the ‘devil is in the detail’.
1. Choose a re-enrolment date
The re-enrolment date is the date by which an employer’s staff will have been reassessed for re-enrolment.
There is a six month ‘window’ that starts three months before, and ends three months after, the third anniversary of the original staging date (the relevant dates can be found in the correspondence that will be received from the Pensions Regulator).
2. Assess and re-enrol staff
Staff who must be assessed, with a record the assessment activity held on file:
- All staff who have opted out of the pension scheme;
- Left the pension scheme after the end of the opt-out period;
- Remained in the pension scheme but have chosen to reduce the level of pension contributions to below the minimum level; and
- Who meet the age and earnings criteria to be re-enrolled.
It is possible to leave out staff member who, on the chosen re-enrolment date:
- Are already in the pension scheme used for automatic enrolment;
- Are aged 21 or under;
- Have reached, or passed, state pension age;
- Have not yet met the age and earnings criteria for automatic enrolment; or
- Have had their re-enrolment postponed.
Note: Postponement (whereby it is possible to delay payments for up to 3 months) cannot be used with automatic re-enrolment. If the eligible jobholder criteria have been met by an employee on the automatic re-enrolment date, automatic re-enrolment must take place with effect from that date.
3. Write to staff who have been re-enrolled
Employers must write within six weeks of their re-enrolment date to advise that they are to be reinstated into an auto-enrolment pension scheme. An eligible jobholder then has a one-month period, after automatic re-enrolment, during which they may choose to opt out.
A letter template is available on The Pension Regulator’s website.
4. Complete the re-declaration of compliance
A declaration of compliance must be completed within five months of the third anniversary of the staging date.
This is a legal duty. Whereby, an employer must confirm that they have fulfilled their re-enrolment duties. The re-declaration of compliance must be completed regardless of whether the employer has any staff to re-enrol.
The re-declaration of compliance can be filed online.
Understanding your obligations
It is important that employers understand their on-going obligation under auto-enrolment, as penalties for non-compliance can be high. If you are in any doubt, please contact us.
Outstanding director’s loan – clear the loan or pay the ‘Section 455’ charge?
As a company approaches its corporation tax due date, a decision needs to be taken whether to clear any director’s loan account balance remaining outstanding from the year end or whether to pay the ‘Section 455’ charge.
Nature of ‘Section 455’ charge
The ‘Section 455 charge’ (imposed by CTA 2010, s. 455) arises where a loan to a director or participator in a close company remains outstanding on the corporation tax due date nine months and one day after the year end.
According to HMRC, “The purpose of the s455 tax charge is to deter companies from making untaxed loans to their participators rather than paying remuneration or dividends which are chargeable as income”.
The rate of ‘Section 455’ tax is the same as the higher dividend rate, currently 32.5%.
A temporary tax
‘Section 455’ tax is unusual in that it is a temporary tax – it is refundable (usually by offset against the main corporation tax liability) nine months and one day after the end of the period in which the loan was repaid.
Is it worth clearing the loan?
The answer, is that it depends. Not all repayments are equal and the repayment mechanism may trigger its own tax liabilities, which may be higher than the ‘Section 455’ tax.
Ways to clear a director’s loan account
Using personal funds
Declaring a dividend
Basic rate band, their income tax charge will be at 7.5%, considerably less than the rate of the ‘Section 455’ tax.
Higher rate tax band, the tax payable on the dividend will be 32.5%, the same rate as the ‘Section 455’ tax.
Additional rate band, in the short run paying the ‘Section 455’ tax will be the cheaper option.
Paying a bonus
Where a director has sufficient funds at their disposal, outside of their company, introducing those funds for offset against the overdrawn director’s loan account will normally be a cheaper option, tax wise, provided that accessing the cash, in the first place, does not trigger any additional tax liabilities elsewhere.
If the company has sufficient retained profits, within its reserves, another option would be for it to declare a dividend to offset against the overdrawn director’s loan account, to either reduce or even clear the loan account balance.
If the dividend falls within a taxpayer’s:
However, as the dividend tax incurred will be lost for good, in some circumstances it may be preferable to leave the loan outstanding and pay the ‘Section 455’ tax.
Another option available is to pay a bonus to clear a director’s loan account. However, while deductible for corporation tax purposes, it will attract income tax and Class 1 National Insurance costs.
Do the sums
There is no substitute for crunching the numbers. The decision as to whether it is better to pay the ‘Section 455’ tax or clear a director’s overdrawn loan account will depend on each director’s personal circumstances.
Talk to us we’re here to help you through the tax maze.
Beat the changes to main residence ancillary reliefs
From 6 April 2020, two of the reliefs associated with the Capital Gains Tax (CGT) main residence relief are to be significantly curtailed. Therefore, if you are likely to be affected and are currently considering disposing of a potentially affected property, it may be prudent to sell, before 6 April 2020 rather than on or after that date to benefit from the current, more generous, reliefs.
The benefit of being an ‘only or main residence’
Any gain arising on the sale of a residence which has been the owner’s ‘only or main residence’ for the whole period of ownership is exempt from CGT.
However, currently, there are additional ‘generous’ CGT reliefs available if the residential property has been the only or main residence for some, if not all of the period, of ownership.
‘Final period exemption’
Where a property has at some point been the owner’s only or main residence, the final period of ownership is exempt from CGT.
The final period is currently set at 18 months, with a longer period of 36 months applying where the person making the disposal is a disabled person or a long-term resident in a care home.
Reduction in final period
From 6 April 2020, the final period exemption will be halved to nine months (although it will remain at 36 months for disposals by long-term care home residents and disabled persons). This change will potentially bring more of a taxable gain into the scope of CGT.
‘Lettings relief’ is a valuable relief currently available on the disposal of a property which at some point during the period of ownership has both been rented out and occupied by the owner(s) as their main residence. In its current form, letting relief can remove gains of up to £40,000 per person from a charge to CGT.
Under the rules, in place until the end of the 2019/20 tax year, the amount of lettings relief available is the lowest of the following three amounts:
- the amount of private residence relief available on the disposal;
- £40,000; and
- the gain attributable to the letting.
The relief applies regardless of the whether the landlord lives, or lived, in the property while it was rented out.
Reduced relief from 6 April 2020
From 6 April 2020, lettings relief will only be available where the landlord shares occupancy with the tenant(s).
The restricted relief will be available to relieve a gain that would otherwise be subject to CGT because it relates to the part of the main residence that has been let out as residential accommodation.
Where the relief applies, the gain is only chargeable to the extent that it exceeds the lower of:
- the amount of the gain sheltered by private residence relief; and
Beat the changes
If you are considering selling a current or former letting property it would be wise to seek advice from us. It is likely, depending on your individual circumstances, that we will tell you that in order to benefit from the current, more generous reliefs, you should aim to, at the very least, have exchanged contracts before 6 April 2020.
Loan Charge Reporting Requirements – Navigating the Minefield
You will no doubt be aware the loan charge is upon us, and this article highlights what you need to know.
UPDATE: Since this article was written, Boris Johnson has announced a review into the government’s controversial loan charge following sustained pressure from campaigners, MPs and the House of Lords. As a result, proposed dates and/or details below may change accordingly.
What Is It All About?
An estimated 50,000 workers, mostly contractors, were paid by way of a modest salary, topped up with a loan, as a way to reduce their income tax and national insurance contributions.
Although this has been described as a ‘loan’, in reality the amounts advanced were never intended to be repaid.
HMRC maintains it never approved these schemes, asserting that they do not work, and referring to such loan schemes as ‘disguised remuneration’.
2019 Loan Charge
Effective from April 2019, the tax department, supported by the UK government, introduced a charge (loan charge) on unrepaid loans that contractors received instead of salaried payments.
This loan charge combines all outstanding loans accrued over the course of up to 20 years and taxes them as income in one year.
Those affected will have to pay by the end of January 2020.
A UK Based Employer
UK based employers were required to declared outstanding loan amounts by April 15th, 2019 at the latest, via their RTI returns, with all associated income tax, national insurance and student loan repayment amounts paid to HMRC by April 22nd .
Subsequently, assuming the employer operated the scheme in the first place, the employee must ‘make good’ (reimburse) the tax and national insurance to their employer by July 5th, 2019.
Failure to make good will give rise to a taxable benefit in kind, reportable as part of the 2018/19 P11D return.
It is immediately apparent that most those affected would rather incur a P11D benefit charge than repay the amount in full to their employers.
There are two instances where great care is needed:
- Where not all of the tax has been made good to the employer
The way that the legislation is written (ITEPA 2003 s.222) is as an ‘all or nothing’ scenario. This means an employee who pays back some or most, but not all of their liability will face a P11D tax liability on the full amount paid by the employer.
- Where the employer cannot afford to pay
Under Reg 81(4) of the PAYE regulations, the tax liability could get transferred to the employee, where the employer is unable to pay.
While an employee ends up paying all the tax themselves, they still incur an ITEPA 2003 s222 charge.
HMRC maintains that, provided they were advised by July 4th, 2019 that an employee wished to pay the loan charge tax to them rather than to their employer, they would not seek to apply the ITEPA 2003 s222 charge.
Furthermore, the department promised to refund anything the employer had previously paid over.
In the event of an employer either being situated abroad or no longer in existence, beneficiaries of the loan scheme must report any outstanding loans to HMRC by September 30th 2019.
To help, HMRC has established an online process supported by a paper form for those who are less tech-savvy.
Failure to report the details for all outstanding loans by September 30th 2019 may render a person liable to penalties. However, it is anticipated they will only be charged in the most severe cases.
Individuals must also report their outstanding loans as part of the 2018/19 self-assessment tax return filing process. The amount of the outstanding loans should be disclosed in box 21, located under the ‘Disguised Remuneration’ section of form SA101 ‘Self-assessment: additional information’.
Do not forget that where an affected person has not previously been required to file a self-assessment tax return, the standard section 7 (Taxes Management Act 1970) requirement to notify chargeability by October 5th following the end of the tax year concerned applies.
Remember also that the loan charge is a one-off charge. Therefore, a claim to reduce future payments on account may be in point
The basic process for dealing with trade-based schemes is similar to the employee scenario.
Where individuals are still trading, they should include outstanding loan amounts from trade-based schemes in box 75.1 under the ‘Disguised Remuneration Additions To Profits’ section of the self-employed supplementary pages (SA103 (full)) of their self-assessment tax return.
For those whose trading activity ceased before 2018/19, they should complete boxes 22 to 24 of form SA101 as appropriate.
Those in trade-based schemes will need to elect for any APNs (accelerated payment notices) to be set against the loan charge liability. At the time of writing, further HMRC guidance on the offsetting of APN’s is expected in due course.
Difficulty in Paying
Anyone who believes they will have difficulty paying the resultant tax must still complete and submit a tax return. They will otherwise be liable for failure to notify and subject to late filing penalties in addition to the loan charge.
Once the self-assessment tax return has been filed, and HMRC is aware of the extent of any loan charge debt, the department should be contacted to agree on a manageable payment plan. Their agreement will depend on an individual’s circumstances, and there is no upper time limit on how long payments can potentially be spread.
If things are left until after the January 31st, 2020 payment deadline, individuals may have to consult with HMRC’s debt management team directly about next steps.
Off-Payroll Working in The Private Sector – The Ticking Timebomb
While you might have been entertained over the last two years by the IR35-related tribunals involving celebrities such as Lorraine Kelly and Christa Ackroyd, a more significant issue closer to home has been looming large on the tax landscape. HMRC is planning to roll out their public sector version of ‘off-payroll’ working to the private sector.
Although this might risk being blown off course by the ongoing Brexit uncertainty, all medium and large private sector businesses employing off-payroll workers (contractors and freelancers) will feel the impact of the new off-payroll working rules when they become mandatory in April 2020.
As a signal-of-intent, HMRC published a consultation document on March 5th, 2019 aimed at seeking views on how the off-payroll working rules will work. This period of consultation concluded on May 28th, 2019.
Importantly, it proposed some changes to the existing public sector legislation and promised that any resulting amendments would be reverse-engineered into the 2017 public sector legislation.
Relief for Small Businesses
One piece of good news in response to feedback from AAT and other relevant parties is that HMRC has excepted operators of ‘small businesses’ from any requirement to implement the proposed rules.
HMRC has indicated that the definition of a small business will be in line with the Companies Act definition:
- Annual turnover: less than £10.2m;
- Balance sheet total: less than £5.1m;
- Number of employees: less than 50.
While the definition may be apparent for companies, the definition of ‘small business’ for un-incorporated entities still needs to be adequately defined. Moreover, although the wording in the recent consultation document concerning the core deciding-components appears to be the same, what remains unclear is just how they are to be applied.
You Must Decide
According to the consultation document, it will be your responsibility (the ‘engaging party’) to determine whether or not a contractor is an IR35 deemed worker, based on the terms of the engagement.
You will also be expected to set out the reasons for reaching a particular decision, as well as working out the practicalities, how you will be required to share this information with other parties within the supply chain and even directly with the contractor.
A New Improved CEST
To help you determine a worker’s employment status, HMRC is to revamp its much-criticised Check Employment Status Tool (CEST) tool. As part of the revision exercise, it has promised to consult with interested parties to improve the way that CEST currently works.
It will be interesting to see how the department will rise to the challenge of addressing the full range of different concerns about the existing operational shortfalls levelled at CEST. One key area of interest is the Mutuality of Obligation (MOO), and the department’s ability to improve this will be seen by many as a critical test.
Who Is Responsible?
As can be expected, any party in a lengthy supply chain that fails to meet its obligations under the proposed legislation will, at least in the first instance, be held liable by HMRC for any monies due.
However, in a move intended to protect the public purpose, HMRC proposes that any liability will transfer back up the supply chain where HMRC finds itself unable to recover the monies due. This may ultimately fall back on you in some instances. In HMRC’s view, this, therefore, requires that the right incentives are in place so that all parties in the supply chain not only comply but are also ensuring the compliance of others further down the line.
Right of Appeal
HMRC is also promising to introduce a statutory appeal process. The absence of any such process in the 2017 public sector legislation left many workers exposed to inappropriate decisions and even the subject of a blanket employment status decision without a right of appeal. This was seen as a severe oversight in AAT’s opinion.
What Action to Take
You should take steps to ensure that you’re aware of this new change and ask yourself how you might be affected.
As HMRC has only recently closed its consultation response window, the department will still be sifting through a deluge of response, and the final legislation still resembles shifting sands. Consequently, we are issuing a health warning to the effect that nothing is certain until the underpinning legislation has been passed.
Having acknowledged that our advice is built on nothing more robust than the legislative equivalent of these shifting sands, we are outlining the fundaments of what is currently proposed:
- From April 6th, 2020, medium and large businesses will need to decide whether the rules apply to an engagement with individuals who work through their own company.
- Where it is determined that the rules do apply, the business, agency, or third party paying the worker’s company will need to deduct income tax and employee NICs and pay employer NICs.
- HMRC has promised to revamp its CEST tool to help businesses determine whether the off-payroll working rules apply.
We’ll be keeping a close eye on this challenging IR35 issue and closely monitoring future developments, and if there are any updates, we’ll let you know.
A One Year Tax Break for Zero Emission Company Cars
The UK government recently announced its intention to exempt newly registered zero-emission company cars from a benefit in kind tax charge for one year from April 2020. This exemption underlines the key role that the company car has to play in helping the government achieve its zero emissions ambitions.
The move is also intended to ensure that company car tax rates are not hiked as a result of the introduction of the Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP).
WLTP – What’s It All About?
Effective April 2020, WLTP will introduce a new CO2 emission-linked benefit in kind calculator to be applied to all new cars. It has been developed using real driving data gathered from around the world.
The aim is to introduce a universal global test cycle across different world regions. In this way, pollutants, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption values can be compared. This ensuring a level playing field.
WLTP is divided into four different average speeds: low, medium, high and extra high. Each speed has a variety of driving phases. As a result, it is considered more representative of everyday driving.
Intentionally, the new bands have been made more sensitive to changes in CO2 emissions as a way to nudge companies and their employees to opt for lower emission vehicles in the future.
Why the Change?
The new measure is intended to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by encouraging a move towards lower emission vehicles. Whilst this ambition is to be welcomed, the Treasury has acknowledged that the WLTP measure will have significant impact on company car users.
This was also acknowledged in a recent Treasury document which stated:
“Whilst the government’s view is that vehicle tax rates should more closely reflect the environmental impacts of driving, it is important that the transition to WLTP is managed.”
In response to this, and following a period of consultation, the government announced that appropriate percentages of new zero emission models will be as follows:
- Nil in 2020-21;
- 1% in 2021-22;
- 2% rate in 2022-23.
By comparison, the appropriate percentage for most other cars registered from 6 April 2020 will be reduced by the following appropriate percentages:
- 2% in 2020-21;
- I% in 2021-22;
- 1% in 2021-22;
- 1% in 2022-23.
A small number of company cars with the greatest CO2 emissions (170g/km and over) will
continue to attract the maximum appropriate percentage of 37%.
The Treasury has acknowledged:
“Due to the range of WLTP impacts on CO2 emissions, this approach means some [new] conventionally fuelled cars will be liable to pay an equal amount of company car tax as of today, whilst others will pay more, and a small number of models could pay less.”
The government has promised that it will set company car tax rates in advance of the tax year affected by the proposed change. This has normally been the position in recent years.
In addition, it will continue to use the current NEDC-based measure for road tax (graduated vehicle excise duty, VED) for 2020/21. However, a public consultation is planned for later this year to establish the best approach to changing the wider road tax system, but avoid hikes in VED for the majority of car users.
Legislation is to be introduced in the next Finance Bill to amend the Income Tax (Earnings and
Pensions) Act 2003 (ITEPA) in order to reflect the changes to the appropriate percentage(s) that will be applied to the list price of the car.
- A zero rate of BIK tax for ‘zero emission vehicles’ from next April for tax year 2020-21, rising to 1% in 2021-22 and 2% in 2022-23;
- A 2% reduction in scale charge from next April for cars registered after April 6 2020, with a 1% discount in 2021-22;
- A freeze on existing 2020-21 BIK rates for the following two years.
The CIS Reverse Charge – Waking the Slumbering Giant
UPDATE: Since this article was written, HMRC has, in a carefully worded brief, announced the postponement of the introduction of domestic reverse charge for construction services for 12 months to 1 October 2020. As a result, proposed dates below may change accordingly.
There has been much focus in recent months on the delivery of Making Tax Digital for VAT (MTDfV), and the time is now upon us. However, in case you’re thinking about relaxing and just focussing on your standard tax compliance work for the rest of the tax year, be warned.
VAT Domestic Reverse Charge for Building and Construction Services
Otherwise known as the ‘CIS reverse charge’, this will be a significant change to the way VAT will be accounted for in the building and construction industry. Moreover, the change is coming shortly.
Why All the Fuss?
As of October 1st 2019, the responsibility for paying VAT due to HMRC will shift from the supplier to the customer for certain supplies of specified construction services.
The ‘customer’, a VAT-registered main contractor, will be required to withhold the input VAT charged to them by their ‘supplier’, where the supplier concerned is a VAT-registered sub-contractor. The ‘customer’ will then account to HMRC in respect of the VAT withheld, the ‘reverse charge‘.
6 Key Points
- The reverse charge applies throughout the supply chain to the point where the customer receiving the supply is no longer considered a business providing construction services.
- At the start of a contract, VAT-registered subcontractors should ascertain whether their customer is making payments under CIS rules to establish whether the domestic reverse charge rules apply.
- Subcontractors should assume that the reverse charge does not apply if their customer is not making payments according to CIS rules.
- Equally, if the customer is applying CIS, then suppliers will be able to use the reverse charge unless their customer has confirmed in writing that they are an ‘end-user’ for reverse charge purposes.
- Suppliers’ VAT invoices must outline clearly that their services are subject to the domestic reverse charge, clearly indicate the amount due under the reverse charge, but not include the amount shown as total VAT charged.
- For continuous supplies of specified services, invoices with a tax point before October 1st 2019 will be subject to the standard VAT rules, if paid before the December 31st. Invoices with a tax point on or after October 1st 2019 will be subject to the new domestic reverse charge rules.
Why Is HMRC Doing This?
HMRC have implemented the ‘reverse charge’ rule as an anti-fraud measure to prevent potential ‘dodgy’ suppliers from absconding with the VAT they have collected.
HMRC have already deployed the rule successfully in the telecoms industry as a means of preventing carrousel fraud or ‘missing trader fraud intercommunity fraud’ (MTIC).
HMRC and the government have calculated that by the end of the 2023/24 tax year, the new initiative will have collected more than £495m in tax revenues that would otherwise have been lost to the public purse.
When Does It Apply?
The reverse charge will apply all the way along construction industry supply chain up until the point where the customer receiving the supply is no longer considered a business supplying specified services. These businesses/individuals are referred to as the ‘end-user(s)‘.
Services Covered Under CIS
Construction services covered by the reverse charge (the ‘specified services’) are those falling within the definition of ‘construction operations’ under CIS.
GOV.UK provides a list of the following activities that are covered under CIS:
- A permanent or temporary building or structure;
- Civil engineering work, e.g. roads and bridges;
- Site preparation, e.g. the laying of foundations and the provision of access works;
- Demolition and dismantling;
- Building work;
- Alterations, repairs and decorating;
- The installation of systems for heating, lighting, power, water and ventilation;
- Post-construction cleaning work inside of buildings.
Services Not Covered Under CIS
Some services are excluded from the reverse charge. For example:
- Professional work carried out by surveyors, architects or consultants in the building industry;
- Acquisition and delivery of machinery;
- Natural gas/oil drilling/extraction activities;
- Installation of security systems which include closed-circuit television and burglar alarms.
The reverse charge will not bring businesses that supply specified services to connected parties within a corporate group structure or with a common interest in land within scope.
In such circumstances, standard VAT accounting rules apply.
Definition of ‘Deemed Contractors’
While these obligations only apply to those operating in the construction industry, non-construction businesses can be treated as ‘deemed contractors’. Under CIS rules, deemed contractors will be required to report payments if their average annual construction-related expenditure exceeds £1 million over a three-year period.
The obligations are designed to throw a net around those businesses with a significant spend on construction activities such as large retailers and public bodies.
What Needs To Be Done?
By October 1st, businesses operating within the construction industry will need to establish whether they are affected by the reverse charge.
If they indeed decide they affected, then they will need to consider the following:
- Are they affected in respect of sales, purchases or both?
- Are their accounting systems and software ready to deal with the reverse charge?
- What is the potential impact on their cash flow?
- Are there any additional training requirements for staff?
When settling an account, the VAT-registered customer must:
- withhold the VAT element of their liability (the reverse charge);
- account for the VAT withheld to HMRC on its VAT return.
The customer retains the ability to recover the associated input VAT incurred on the same VAT return, subject to standard VAT rules.
In summary, by September 30th:
- Contractors should review their contracts with sub-contractors to decide whether the reverse charge If it applies, then they should notify their suppliers immediately;
- Sub-contractors will need to contact their customers to establish if the reverse charge applies. They will also need to determine whether their customer is an end-user or intermediary supplier.
The reverse charge does not apply to consumers or final customers of building and construction services.
Any consumers or final customers who are registered for VAT and CIS will need to ensure their suppliers do not apply the reverse charge on services supplied to them.
Intermediary suppliers are VAT, andCISregistered businesses that are considered connected or linked to end-users.
To be considered ‘connected’ or ‘linked to’ end-users, intermediary suppliers must either:
- share a relevant interest in the same land, where the construction works are taking place, or;
- be part of the same corporate group or undertaking, as defined in section 1161 of the Companies Act 2006.
If several connected businesses are collaborating to purchase construction services, they are all treated as if they are end-users, and the reverse charge does not apply to their purchases. For example:
- A property-owning group may buy construction services through one member of the group and recharge those services to either other group companies, their tenants, or both.
- All the members of the property-owning group and their tenants will be considered end-users, and the reverse charge will apply.
Don’t Underestimate the Impact
You should be under no doubt that from October 1st, the domestic reverse charge will have a significant impact on cash flow management for sub-contracting businesses that are affected by this new rule.
Smaller sub-contractors should pay particular attention since historically smaller sub-contractors have relied on the VAT element of contract payments received to fund their short term cashflow needs.
While in essence, a business is free to use VAT that it has collected as working capital, HMRC would prefer for it to be ringfenced and held on deposit until payment of the related VAT has been made.
Irrespective of your view on the appropriateness of a business using government monies to fund their working capital requirements, as of October 1st, this interest-free source of funds will be withdrawn.
Calls for Delay
With the emphasis on businesses meeting compliance requirements for MTDfV, until recently, there has been scant information regarding its poor relation, the reverse charge. Consequently, there is an ongoing concern amongst those in the know that the construction industry will not be ready on time.
In an attempt to draw attention to this lack of readiness, the Chartered Institute of Taxation (CIOT) wrote to HMRC in early August and published a press release calling for the launch to be postponed until April 2020. This would enable the 150,000 affected CIS to prepare for this significant change in accounting for VAT.
In response, HMRC says it recognises the difficulties around implementing the new rules. In response, it has announced that it will apply a ‘light touch’ in dealing with related errors during the first six months.
When supplying a service subject to the domestic reverse charge, suppliers must:
- show all the information required on a VAT invoice;
- make a note on the invoice, clearly indicating that the domestic reverse charge applies and that the customer is required to account for the VAT;
- clearly state how much VAT us due under the reverse charge, or the rate of VAT if the VAT amount cannot be shown, but that VAT should not be included in the amount charged to the customer.
Where software is used to produce invoices and the system cannot show the amount of VAT to be accounted for under the reverse charge, then the invoice should clearly indicate that VAT is to be accounted for by the customer at the appropriate rate, based on the VAT-exclusive selling price for the reverse charge goods or services.
Authenticated Tax Receipt and Self-billing Invoices
Authenticated tax receipts or self-billing invoices must:
- show the supplier’s name, address and VAT registration number (as well as the usual VAT invoice details);
- contain the self-billed invoice with the self-billing reference;
- clearly state the amount of VAT due under the reverse charge, or the rate of VAT if the VAT amount cannot be displayed.
Determining Reverse Charge Treatment of Existing Contracts by The Deadline
In the run-up to the October 1st deadline, businesses with a large number of active contracts that engage sub-contractors at a variety of sites may find it difficult to establish whether or not the reverse charge applies.
For example, a construction group may be considered a property developer on some sites and a building contractor on others, therefore, their status could change.
To avoid uncertainty and delay to payments while each contract is being checked, HMRC has determined that it will be easier for one accounting treatment to be applied to all contracts with a particular sub-contractor.
For example, if a contractor determines that the reverse charge applies to more than 5% of contracts (by volume or value) after examining all its construction contracts with a particular subcontractor, then the reverse charge may be applied to all the contracts.
Switching to Monthly VAT Returns
“As a result of the reverse charge, some businesses may find that because they no longer pay the VAT on some of their sales to HMRC, they become repayment traders (their VAT return is a net claim from HMRC instead of a net payment).
Repayment traders can apply to move to monthly returns to speed up payments due from HMRC.”
Asking Customers About End-user or Intermediary Status
If in doubt and where a supplier intends to make a supply, they should ask the customer if they are an end-user or intermediary supplier, ensuring they keep a record of the customer’s answer.
It will be up to the customer to make the supplier aware that they are an end-user or intermediary supplier, and that VAT should be charged in the usual way instead of being subject to a reverse charge.
Sometimes it may be evident that the customer is an end-user. For example, if there is a repeat contract, it will be deemed acceptable for you to charge VAT in the usual way.
Examples of end-users include UK VAT-registered mainstream or deemed contractors. Under CIS rules:
- They are typically not construction businesses and are found in the retail, manufacturing, utilities and property investment sectors as well as public bodies.
- Property developers should also be end-users in cases where they do not make onward supplies of building or construction services.
- Intermediary suppliers can call themselves end-users in all communications and should be in writing (either digitally, or on paper).
HMRC also acknowledges:
“There is no set wording, but this is an example of suitable wording:
We are an end-user for the purposes of section 55A VAT Act 1994 reverse charge for building and construction services. Please issue us with a normal VAT invoice, with VAT charged at the appropriate rate. We will not account for the reverse charge.”
If the reverse charge treatment depends on the customer’s end-user status, and the treatment adopted is found to be incorrect (for example, because the customer is an end-user but has not provided written confirmation resulting in the reverse charge being applied incorrectly) HMRC will expect the customer to notify the supplier that it is an end-user and request a corrected invoice.
In the case of self-billing, a new invoice will have to be issued, and the VAT will have to be paid to the supplier.
Verifying the VAT Status of Customers
Before applying the reverse charge, a supplier must be satisfied that a customer is VAT-registered. Presently, this can be done via the European Commission website.
Verifying a Customer’s CIS registration
It is not necessary to verify the CIS registration of existing customers. If a business holds such evidence, then that evidence should be retained as part of the VAT record. With respect to all new customers, confirmation of registration or a copy of their CIS should be obtained and retained.
Change of VAT Treatment During A Contract
There are occasions during a contract when a customer no longer retains an interest in the land concerned, or a property developer sells a partly completed building but carries on supplying the construction services to the new owner to complete the building.
Where this happens, a customer should notify the supplier that the end-user exclusion no longer applies, and charges for services in future would be subject to reverse charge.
The new treatment will be considered to apply at the point the customer’s circumstances are deemed to have changed.
If this change happens during an invoice period (where there would be one invoice including both reverse charge and standard VAT rules), the supplier can opt to change to the new treatment for the entire invoice period, or wait until the next invoice period before switching to the new treatment.
Transitional Supplies for Authenticated Tax receipts or Self-billed Invoices
For authenticated tax receipts or self-billed invoices, the tax point is usually the date the supplier receives payment.
The transitional arrangements for how the VAT treatment is determined are as follows:
- For transactions recorded by October 1st, and paid by December 31st, the standard rules apply.
- For transactions recorded by October 1st, but not paid by December 31st, the domestic reverse charge rules apply.
- For transaction recorded on or after October 1st, domestic reverse charge rules apply.
Cash Accounting Scheme
The Cash Accounting Scheme cannot be used for the supply of services that are subject to the reverse charge. However, under the reverse charge, no VAT is actually paid by customers to suppliers, so there will be no additional adverse cash flow impact.
The Cash Accounting Scheme can still be used for supplies that are not within the reverse charge. However, as a business will have to pay cash out to make a claim, the scheme may no longer help.
Flat Rate Scheme (FRS)
Reverse charge supplies are not to be accounted for under the FRS scheme. Therefore, users of the scheme will have to consider if it is still beneficial to them when VAT is not being paid to them on some or all of the invoices they issue.
Flat Rate Scheme users who receive reverse charge supplies will have to account for the VAT due to HMRC.
This article only provides the key highlights of the change, and you should be aware of the specific details by visiting the HMRC’s site, which has a helpful section dedicated to ‘VAT: domestic reverse charge for building and construction services’ guidance.
Improve Task Organisation with this Simple Concept.The daily grind, for so many, can feel like a constant juggling act. You attempt to balance work, household chores, bills, family – and hopefully some leisure in between if there’s any time leftover. Trying to find time for things we enjoy – or for projects to improve ourselves – can often feel impossible. It is incredibly frustrating to not move forward with things that you truly value. It’s just as frustrating to get stuck under a tower of tasks that never seems to get any smaller. An online poll by the Mental Health Foundation found that
in the past year, 74% of people have felt so stressed they have been overwhelmed or unable to cope. A report by ACAS, the workplace experts, had similar findings. These included 66% of poll respondents had felt stressed or anxious about work over the past year – and 35% struggling to balance home and work lives. This encouraged us to look for a helpful way to improve task organisation and to make them seem less disheartening. One example is for you to embrace online apps and tools which are available, as they can support your progress in breaking down into manageable segments an expanding task list. This can prevent you from falling into the pattern of trying to complete multiple tasks simultaneously while considering other items that may need to be started soon. This common mistake can lead to us feel overwhelmed. The effort to move forward becomes mentally taxing and stagnates our progress. Some scheduling style techniques, such as Personal Kanban, and post-it note-style tools like Trello boards, encourage you to condense the mass of tasks that you may currently be working on into a more manageable and visually pleasing format. Both strategies encourage breaking down your to-do list into two main areas – which are followed by a
To Do / Options / IdeasThis column (or two columns if you would like to separate your ideas from the general to-do list) should be used for everything you currently have pending. Trello will allow you to organise this further with handy coloured labels and due dates, etc. This list, when viewed alone, can result in our slipping into the habit of trying to tackle as many tasks as possible and struggle to complete tasks at a standard we are happy with.
Doing / in progressThe
In Progresslist, according to the Personal Kanban, should be restricted to three tasks. This will allow you to focus on the tasks clearly and will give you the ability to complete them without reaching a mental block. Resist the temptation to add any more than three, or to add tasks that should be broken down into multiple tasks. For example, if your task is to start a new business or write a new business strategy, it will obstruct your progress instantly. These need to be broken down further.
Complete / DoneAlthough this column may appear self-explanatory, not all tasks are indefinitely complete. For example, self-assessment is an annual business task. Once complete, a due date can be added, and, once relevant, the card can be moved back to the To Do column. For the other completed tasks, it is simply rewarding to see them move over to the completed column. Enjoy the sense of satisfaction as the list grows! We hope this simple concept can help you manage your planning and task lists. For further guidance on business and finance-related issues, please contact us today.
Latest Employer Bulletin
The latest edition of HMRC’s Employee Bulletin was issued in June. Topics covered in the bi-monthly magazine, include some of the following:
- Guidance for employers to help their employees with tax-free childcare for the summer holidays.
- Advice on how to re-enroll staff into a workplace pension scheme process. The Pensions Regulator website has more guidance about the steps required.
- Student/Postgraduate Loan changes and repayments.
- How to confirm National Insurance numbers quickly on the HMRC App or through your personal tax account.
- Updates to HMRC toolkits: National Insurance Contributions and the expenses and benefits from employment toolkit.
- The General Data Protection Regulations/Data Protection Act and the annual data protection charge. Assessment tools are available to help determine the level of payment required: the self-assessment tool and the charge-assessment tool.
- GDPR fees
- Using loans to escape the Optional Remuneration rules.
Please contact us if you would like further guidance on any of the topics covered in the Bulletin.
Workforce Preparations for Brexit
The government has advised that EU citizens who wish to continue to work, live, or study in the UK, after it leaves the EU on 31 December 2020, should apply to the EU Settlement Scheme (EUSS).
An employer toolkit is available to assist with the application and includes posters, videos, and relevant information on how to apply to the scheme. The government has created the toolkit for employers to share when necessary. However, there is no duty to provide the toolkit information or ensure employees have applied.
A recent HMRC Agent Update includes further guidance on employer obligations and states, “employers have a duty not to discriminate against EU citizens in light of the UK’s decision to leave the EU, both as a prospective and current employer”.
Successful applicants will receive either a settled or pre-settled status. The outcome can be influenced by how long an EU citizen has been living in the UK and, when the application is submitted.
Contact us for more guidance on this matter.
New Measures to Ensure Small Businesses Get Paid on Time
A new government measure has been released to target the late payments of large businesses to smaller businesses.
The proposal by the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Small Business Commissioner, includes the following points:
- The government will consult on increasing the powers of the Small Business Commissioner, with a view to target larger companies who fail to make payments on time. The powers could include the ability to impose fines and to request information on payment terms and conditions where necessary. New binding payment plans could also be enforced where the current practice is deemed as unfair for small businesses.
- Company boards are to be held accountable within their companies for payment practices to small businesses. This will increase accountability and encourage fair practice and transparency.
- A new Business Basic Fund competition of up to £1 million – which aims to encourage small businesses to embrace new technology, to improve productivity and management practices.
- The amount owed in late payments has halved over the last five years.
Small Business Minister, Kelly Tolhurst, said:
Small businesses are the backbone of our economy and, through our modern Industrial Strategy, we want to ensure the UK is the best place to start and grow a business. These measures will ensure that small businesses are given the support they need and ensure that they get paid quickly – ending the unacceptable culture of late payment.
Visit GOV.UK for the full details or please speak with us for more guidance.
New Tool Launched by the Department for International Trade
A new tool has been released, which aims to assist international investors who are interested in setting up or expanding their operations in the UK.
The UK Investment Support Directory tool allows potential investors to locate experts who can assist with their move – for example, in accountancy, law, consultancy, recruitment, and more. The tool will also connect them with over three hundred businesses throughout the UK.
The Department for International Trade states that the International Support Directory has been designed to improve the accessibility of information regarding the investment process. It states that this is part of a wider plan to encourage more foreign investment in the UK.
Mark Slaughter, Director General for Investment, said:
The UK Investment Support Directory is a smart, new digital tool that innovatively connects investors to private sector expertise.This interactive platform allows investors to tailor their searches to find the specific advice they are looking for or generates a range of businesses if they aren’t sure what they’re looking for yet. It is another way DIT is helping support foreign investment by streamlining connections between UK businesses and overseas investors.
Loan Charge Reporting Requirements: Navigating the Minefield
Unless you’ve been operating in a complete vacuum, you will no doubt be aware that the loan charge is upon us. However, you might not be quite so clear on what it is and what you really need to know.
What’s it All About?
An estimated 50,000 workers, mostly contractors, were paid by way of a modest salary topped up with a loan. This was to reduce their income tax and National Insurance contributions.
While it is described as a
loan, in reality, the amounts advanced were never intended to be repaid.
HMRC said it never approved these schemes. The department affirmed that it has always said these schemes did not work and it refers to such loan schemes as
2019 Loan Charge
Effective from April 2019, the tax department, supported by the UK government, introduced a charge (a loan charge) on unrepaid loans that contractors received instead of salary payments.
The loan charge combines all outstanding loans accrued over the course of up to twenty years and taxes them as income in one year.
Those affected will have to pay by the end of January 2020.
A UK-based Employer
UK-based employers were required to declare outstanding loan amounts by 15 April 2019, at the latest, via their RTI returns. This includes all associated income tax, National Insurance and student loan repayment amounts paid to HMRC by 22 April.
Then, assuming the employer operated the scheme in the first place, the employee must have
made good (reimburse) the tax and National Insurance to their employer by 5 July 2019.
Failure to have made goodwill give rise to a taxable benefit in kind, reportable as part of the 2018/19 P11D return process.
It is immediately obvious that most of those affected would rather incur a P11d benefit charge than repay the amount in full to their employers.
There are two instances where great care is needed:
Where not all of the tax has been made good to the employer.
The way that the legislation is written (ITEPA 2003 s.222) affirms an
all or nothing scenario. This means that an employee who pays back some – but not all – of their liability will face a P11d tax liability on the full amount paid by the employer.
Where the employer cannot afford to pay.
Under Reg 81(4) of the PAYE regulations, the tax liability could get transferred to the employee where the employer is unable to pay.
While an employee ends up paying all the tax themselves, they still incur an ITEPA 2003 s222 charge.
HMRC had said, provided they were advised by 4 July 2019 that an employee wished to pay the loan charge tax to them rather than to their employer, they would not seek to apply the ITEPA 2003 s222 charge.
Furthermore, the department promised to refund anything the employer had previously overpaid.
Employer is Offshore
In the event of an employer either being situated abroad or no longer in existence, beneficiaries of the loan scheme must report any outstanding loans to HMRC by 30 September 2019.
To help, HMRC has established an online process. This is supported by a paper form – for those who are less tech-savvy.
Failure to report the details for all outstanding loans by 30 September 2019 may render a person liable to penalties. However, it is anticipated that they will only be charged in the most serious of cases.
Individuals must also report their outstanding loans as part of the 2018/19 self-assessment tax return filing process. The amount of the outstanding loans should be disclosed in box 21 found under the
Disguised remuneration section of form SA101
Self-assessment: additional information.
Don’t forget that where an affected person has not previously been required to file a self-assessment tax return, the normal section 7, Taxes Management Act 1970 requirement applies. This notifies chargeability by the 5 October following the end of the tax year concerned.
Remember the loan charge is a one-off. Therefore, a claim to reduce future payments on account may be necessary.
The basic process for dealing with trade-based schemes is similar to the employee scenario.
Where individuals are still trading, they should include outstanding loan amounts from trade-based schemes in box 75.1 under
disguised remuneration additions to profits of the self-employed supplementary pages (SA103 (full)) of their self-assessment tax return.
Those whose trading activity ceased prior to 2018/19 should complete boxes 22 to 24 of form SA101 as appropriate.
Those in trade-based schemes will need to elect whether any APNs (accelerated payment notices) are to be set against the loan charge liability. At the time of writing, further HMRC guidance on the offsetting of APNs is expected.
Difficulty in Paying
Anyone who believes they will have difficulty paying the resultant tax must, nonetheless, complete and submit a tax return. Otherwise, they will be liable for failure to notify or late filing penalties – on top of the loan charge.
Once the self-assessment tax return has been filed and HMRC is aware of the extent of any loan charge debt, the department should be contacted to agree on a manageable payment plan. What they agree will depend on an individual’s circumstances, and there is no upper time limit on how long payments can potentially be spread.
If things are left until after the 31 January 2020 deadline, individuals may have to talk with HMRC’s debt management team directly regarding the next steps.
About the author: Brian Palmer is a tax policy adviser and a UK-leading authority on Making Tax Digital. He advises, blogs, and lectures extensively on this and other important areas of taxation.
It’s That Time of Year Again!
At this time of every year, HM Revenue and Customs embark on a massive computerised reconciliation process. This is to check that those with PAYE records, but not in self-assessment, have paid the right amount of tax in the preceding tax year.
Where the department determines a taxpayer has not paid the correct amount, HMRC will issue a tax calculation. This can be a P800 or a simple assessment letter.
Reasons for a P800
GOV.UK informs taxpayers of the following:
You might get a P800 if you:
- finished one job, started a new one and were paid by both in the same month;
- started receiving a pension at work;
- received Employment and Support Allowance or Jobseeker’s Allowance.
It also states:
You will not get a P800 if you’re registered for self-assessment. Your bill will be adjusted automatically if you’ve underpaid or overpaid tax.
While this might be true for the vast majority, occasionally HMRC’s system fails to match a taxpayer’s PAYE with their self-assessment record. In this case, it will issue a P800 / simple assessment.
Reasons for a Simple Assessment letter
GOV.UK informs taxpayers:
You might get a Simple Assessment letter if you:
- owe tax that cannot be automatically taken out of your income;
- owe HMRC more than £3,000;
- have to pay tax on the State Pension.
Checking the Tax Calculation
The P800 or simple assessment letter will show the taxable income received and tax paid in a tax year.
This includes the following:
- taxable income from employment (including employee benefits);
- pensions (state and private);
- state benefits and savings interest.
Although it is not made clear, HMRC makes use of estimated figures for bank interest or nominal amounts of rental income. For this reason, as well as best practice, the departments’ figures should be checked against third-party documentation – including P60s, P11ds, P45s, bank statements, or correspondence from the Department for Work.
HMRC will combine, in the calculation, any income of a similar type into a single line.
Where this happens, you may have to contact HMRC to obtain a breakdown or ask your client to check them in their personal tax account.
What if a Calculation is Wrong?
Thankfully, PAYE usually collects the right amount of tax in cases in which you have stable employment that lasts a complete tax year. However, this might not be possible for taxpayers with more complicated affairs.
This might be the case, for example, where taxpayers:
- have more than one job, pension, or are in receipt of a taxable state benefit or another form of untaxed income;
- change jobs or retire;
- draw income flexibly from a pension;
- are widowed or lose a civil partner;
- get extra benefits or expenses payments from their employer on top of their cash wages;
- need to claim extra allowances or expenses against taxable income;
- leave the UK or arrive in the UK from overseas.
HMRC will usually try to collect any tax due through a PAYE coding adjustment.
If the tax amount owed is less than £3,000, HMRC will attempt to recover the tax due from future income paid via PAYE, rather than as a lump sum.
Where a taxpayer’s income exceeds £30,000, HMRC may seek to collect more than £3,000 via a coding adjustment.
The department must consider whether a taxpayer has sufficient taxable income to enable the extra deduction. Furthermore, the department must be mindful that total PAYE deductions must not exceed 50% of a taxpayer’s wage.
While an underpayment is usually recovered in a single tax year, collection can be spread over more than one tax year. Normally, this happens where a P800 is issued late in a tax year. In such instances, details of how the amount is to be collected should be shown on the form.
If HMRC cannot collect the tax through a PAYE code – for example, because a taxpayer has left the UK or is not working – they will contact the taxpayer to arrange payment another way. Failure to respond, or to reach an agreed method of repayment, is likely to result in HMRC issuing a simple assessment. This
letter will contain similar information found on the form P800. It also creates a legal obligation to pay the tax. This means that enforcement action can be used to collect the tax.
What Happens if You Don’t Agree?
If you don’t agree with the simple assessment, it is vital that it is queried within sixty days of receipt, setting out the reasons. This can be done by phone or in writing to HMRC.
At this stage, it is possible to ask for some or all of the tax reported as due to be postponed.
HMRC must respond to the query. If you do not agree with the response, you can appeal. Be careful, however, that there is only a thirty-day window in which to make such a response.
Again, the query can be made by phone, or in writing. You will need to state why you think the assessment is incorrect and provide what you consider to be the correct figures.
While the tax due is in dispute, HMRC might agree not to collect any or all of the tax shown as due.
When to Pay
Normally, the assessed tax is payable by the 31 January following the end of the relevant tax year. However, if it is issued after 31 October following the year of assessment, the due date is three months after the date of issue of the simple assessment.
Payment must either be made online or by cheque.
Low Income Tax Reform Group (LITRG)
Firstly, it is an informal calculation, not a tax demand.
A P800 calculation is an informal calculation, not a demand for tax.
If a taxpayer ignores a P800 which reports tax due, at some point HMRC, are likely to issue a formal assessment or even a tax return.
Secondly, do you have underpaid tax?
The 2018/19 tax year was a week
53 tax year. Thus, many of the calculations issued showing 2018/19 underpayments will be correct.
There are still a few things to bear in mind if you receive a P800 that shows you have underpaid tax:
- If it is for an earlier tax year, HMRC may be too late to collect it.
- Apart from in cases of taxpayer neglect or fraud, HMRC is not permitted to assess tax that was due more than four tax years previously.
- Therefore, the earliest tax year that HMRC can view is 2015/16 (which ended on 5 April 2016 and can be assessed until 5 April 2020).
- In most cases, the P800 will be for a more recent tax year. However, if you believe that HMRC has had the information they needed to calculate your tax correctly, but have simply not used it until now, you should ask them to consider writing off the underpaid tax. This falls under the terms of the
extra-statutory concession A19.
- If you consider the underpaid tax to be an employer or pension provider’s fault – for not operating correctly the code given to them by HMRC or for making some other mistake – then, in strict law, HMRC must first call upon your employer or pension provider to make good the shortfall.
- The calculation produced by HMRC is not necessarily the full picture of a taxpayer’s situation. They may not have matched all relevant records – for example, they may have missed out a source of income upon which tax was paid.
- HMRC might also have used estimated figures in the calculation. This will not be immediately obvious, so you need to check all the figures carefully.
Finally, LITRG can help.
The Low Income Tax Reform Group (LITRG) has a P800 factsheet. It contains information on what to do if you think a P800 is wrong or if you think a taxpayer might have difficulty paying any tax that is shown as being due.
For guidance on how to pay your P800 bill, including via your tax code or by making a
voluntary payment, please see our news piece, How to pay the tax bill shown on your form P800.
About the author: Brian Palmer is a tax policy adviser and a UK-leading authority on Making Tax Digital. He advises, blogs, and lectures extensively on this and other important areas of taxation.
It’s good for businesses to know that HMRC expects them to record digitally for every individual invoice, no matter how minor and inconsequential it might be. This stands irrespective of the fact that a business’s clients might make a single monthly payment against a statement. Often, when I’ve broken this news to the audience in one of my many lectures, it goes down like a lead balloon – and at least one Licensed Accountant will utter:
This is ridiculous! It’s going to take much more of my time to digitally record each and every invoice. How am I going to make a living? My clients won’t pay my extra time costs.
Custom and Practice
Historically, accountants and bookkeepers whose clients account for VAT according to VAT cash accounting scheme rules have simply recorded a summary, a one-line entry. This would reflect a single payment made to a supplier, based on the amount recorded as outstanding on a statement covering a myriad of different invoices.
This practice was fair game. It was accepted by HMRC and the profession alike, provided that the source VAT invoices were matched to the statement amount, that they were retained and could be produced if HMRC required.
Commonsense Wins Out
There’s always the customary rash of
we’re all doomed articles, appearing in the accountancy press at this point in the implementation cycle of any major change in our interactions with HMRC. But, now, I’m delighted to be the bearer of tidings of good news.
On the 5 May 2019, HMRC updated parts of its go-to online guide for MTDfV,
VAT Notice 700/22: Making Tax Digital for VAT. Despite what some might say, I think it’s great. As it’s online, it is a living document. By this, I mean that, unlike its hard-copy antecedents, it is capable of being regularly updated at a minimal cost.
Importantly, on this occasion, tracts of section 4, which cover
Digital record-keeping, have been updated.
A newly introduced paragraph 22.214.171.124 starts with an acknowledgement:
Some businesses record the value of each supply from a supplier statement instead of individual invoices….
At this point, it lapses into something more churlish:
In HMRC’s view, it is best practice to record digitally the individual supplies, as this means less risk of invoices either being missed completely or being entered twice – once as an invoice, and once as part of the statement. There is also less risk of the wrong rate of VAT being applied.
The paragraph concludes,
On the other hand, HMRC accepts there may be additional work for a business in capturing individual supplies digitally, and this could lead to data entry errors. Therefore, HMRC can accept the recording of totals from a supplier statement where all the supplies on the statement relate to the same VAT period, and the total VAT charged at each rate is shown. If you choose to do this, you must also cross-reference all supplies on the supplier statement to invoices received, but this can be done outside of your digital records.
I struggle with the logic of that middle section – in particular, its begrudging tone, which serves to undermine the positive impact of HMRC’s acceptance. However, I applaud HMRC for allowing an earlier common-sense practice to continue into tomorrow’s digital future. The department has relaxed its former hardline attitude to the posting of purchase and expenses data by committing to allow those accounting for VAT under cash accounting rules to digitally record supplier statement totals. The alternative is the task of entering every underlying invoice in the majority of instances.
Things to Watch Out For
Would-be exponents of the relaxation will do well to take note of the second 126.96.36.199 paragraph, in which HMRC sets the ground rules for recording transactions via supplier statements.
They are, as follows:
- All recorded transactions (invoices) must be from the same VAT period.
- If more than one VAT rate is applicable, summary totals should be prepared for each rate.
- All statemented items must be supported by the original VAT invoice.
The Force of Law
The third and final paragraph under 188.8.131.52 gives readers all the confidence they need to make use of HMRC’s change of heart:
The following rule has the force of law:where a supplier issues a statement for a period you may record the totals from the supplier statement (rather than the individual invoices) provided all supplies on the statement are to be included on the same return, and the total VAT charged at each rate is shown.
Returning from an Interstellar Journey
For those of you who’ve just returned from an interstellar trip – or are just visiting from Mars:
Making Tax Digital (MTD) is part of HMRC’s ambition to become one of the most digitally advanced tax administrations in the world. It is the UK tax department making fundamental changes to the way the tax system works, with the objective of making it:
- more effective;
- more efficient;
- easier for taxpayers to get their tax right.
Into the Future
This might not have been so obvious back in 2015 when MTD was first launched. However, in the intervening years, a growing number of the Great British Public seem to want to interact with the Revenue in the same way as they do with their bank. This means using:
- an app, firstly;
- the internet, secondly;
- the phone, thirdly; and
- never by snail-mail (conventionally known as,
MTDfV, which has already been with us for three months, is HMRC’s first tentative step toward delivering on its digital ambition.
What You Need to Do to Comply
MTDfV was introduced, firstly, for all UK businesses making annual VAT taxable supplies of more than £85,000 – for VAT periods beginning on or after 1 April 2019.
You will need to keep your business records digitally, from the start of your VAT accounting period starting after the 31 March 2019. If you already use software to keep your business records, check your software provider’s plans to introduce MTD-compatible software.
About the author: Brian Palmer is a tax policy adviser and a UK-leading authority on Making Tax Digital. He advises, blogs, and lectures extensively on this and other important areas of taxation.
The use of the smartphone has changed dramatically over the past decade: it has gone from being merely a gadget to being an increasingly used and increasingly important lifestyle and business tool. A report by Ofcom (the UK regulator for the communications services) referred to this change in our use of this technology as the ‘Smartphone obsession’.
Ofcom’s Director of Market Intelligence, Ian Macrae, said:
“Over the last decade, people’s lives have been transformed by the rise of the smartphone, together with better access to the internet and new services.”
“Whether it’s working flexibly, keeping up with current affairs or shopping online, we can do more on the move than ever before.”
The report found that 72% of adults say that their smartphone is their most important device for accessing the internet; 71% say they never turn off their phone; and 78% say they could not live without it. The amazing thing is that these figures still appear to be rising.
So, most importantly for us, how can mobile phones and mobile apps support and help your business grow? We have six things for you to consider.
1. Access to tools and resources around the clock.
In general, our demands and expectations towards finding information, and towards the length of time it should take to find it, have vastly increased. Information should be readily available, and buffering and tedious searching will often be cut short so we can try something else. Generally, we’re always on the lookout for a better user experience.
Apps provide the opportunity for you to compile your information and resources into one streamlined solution which can be accessed whenever it is convenient – with no wait time.
Apps can provide solutions for downloadable resources, communication requests, client referrals, marketing incentives, video content, up-to-date news, software, secure content sharing, tax updates, tax calculators and so much more.
2. A new marketing and communications channel.
An app can be an additional channel in your current marketing mix. Use it for targeted marketing, with geolocation tools which can filter customers according to where they are based.
The user can also set permissions and personalisations which tailor the app to be suitable to their preferred working methods. Push notifications can be sent to bespoke categories allowing only the most relevant alerts and reminders – for example, a deadline notification, an event RSVP, perhaps a special offer, or new content which is available in the app.
Video content can be added to your app where your clients can access your most recent uploads with business advice, tutorials, and any other content you wish to include.
3. Gather consumer data.
By fully utilising your app to streamline business processes, you can collect data on how your clients engage with the app. What content are they accessing, and how regularly do they use it? Which resources are most popular, and which resources are not used?
You can then investigate what other services your clients require to get them more engaged with your service offering. Naturally, and in line with privacy regulations, this provides a directional view of customer behaviour. In order to get more specific, you will then need to ask for permission from your clients and to store their information securely and in line with GDPR regulation.
4. A new contact and sharing solution.
Today, there are plenty of quick options enabling clients to get in touch with you, and any of them can be featured on your app. It just depends what you would prefer.
To name a few, you could take client referrals via an app module, through meeting requests, and even by video calling.
5. Optimising business workflows.
Whether your business is a complex manufacturing process or whether it manages a sales pipeline, apps can provide a convenient and efficient way to optimise a business workflow.
For example, consider a salesperson taking business cards who later records the client information from them. Through an app, you could streamline this process through an off-the-shelf CRM or through a bespoke module which can take a photo and automatically scan the data into the system.
6. Improved user experience through Smartphone capabilities.
When considering using or developing your own app for your business, consider how you can leverage the technology inherent in the smartphone device – whether that’s Bluetooth, GPS, face recognition, or voice recognition.
A common example is to use the camera to interact with QR Codes. For firms with stock management, this approach can be used so that they can quickly assess product details through a simple scan of the code. In addition, consider how GPS tracking can be used, for example, to indicate where your package is being delivered and the estimated time of arrival.
Lastly, interactions do not need to be limited to typing. With voice recognition, apps can take on more of an “assistant” role, which you can engage with through voice commands and instructions.
In summary, whatever your business, there is an ever-growing need for the mobile workforce to have their office in their hand. Apps provide this capability, and, through bespoke development, your app can take on its own unique form to help accelerate and grow your business.
Companies such as AppTheBusiness Limited can develop a tailored solution and take your business to the smartphone.
The new fuel rates take effect from 1 June 2019, although the previous rates can be used for an additional month.
These rates only apply to employees who are using a company car in the following scenarios:
- When employees are reimbursed for business travel in their company cars; or,
- When employees are required to repay the cost of fuel used for private travel.
The rates are not applicable in any other circumstances.
The Advisory Electricity Rate for fully electric cars is four pence per mile, and electricity is not considered a fuel for car fuel benefit purposes.
|1400cc or less||12p|
|1401cc – 2000cc||15p|
|1400cc or less||8p|
|1401cc – 2000cc||9p|
|1600cc or less||10p|
|1601cc – 2000cc||12p|
The Capital Gains Tax (CGT) consultation on Private Residence Relief (PRR) and on changes to ancillary reliefs is now closed. The consultation ran from 1 April 2019 until 1 June 2019.
Historically, PRR has been a very useful way to reduce the taxable gains arising from the sale of a residential property that has been let but which has, at some point, been occupied by the owner as their primary residence.
In the 2018 Budget, the government announced two relief changes which it claimed would aim PRR at owner-occupiers.
The proposed changes are planned to take effect from the 6 April 2020, and are as follows:
- The final period exemption will be reduced from 18 months to nine months. However, owners with a disability and those in care will retain a 36-month final period exemption.
- Lettings relief will be reformed so that it only applies in cases where an owner is in shared occupancy with a tenant.
PPR has been an important device to help homeowners mitigate or even eradicate a charge to CGT on a residential property that had been their one-time home. Unfortunately, if the government gets its way, the tax mitigation power available to PRR where it is in point will be greatly diminished.
We will provide more information on the results of the consultation once it becomes available.
HMRC currently has an open consultation on proposals to further improve the role of Companies House, with a view to having businesses submit more information for the purpose of helping to tackle economic crime.
In order to help to prevent the register being misused, the following areas are open to consultation:
- knowing who is setting up, managing and controlling companies;
- improving the accuracy and usability of data on the companies register;
- protecting personal information on the register;
- ensuring compliance, sharing intelligence, and other measures to deter abuse of corporate entities.
Louise Smyth, Chief Executive of Companies House, said:
‘This package of reforms represents a significant milestone for Companies House as they will enable us to play a greater part in tackling economic crime, protecting directors from identity theft and fraud, and improving the accuracy of the register.’
If you wish to share your views, you can do so online until the 5th August 2019.
From April 2019 onwards, the Welsh Government has devolved powers to decide the rates of Income Tax payable by Welsh taxpayers.
The above means the Welsh Government have the ability to vary the Welsh rates of Income Tax or to keep them the same as those paid by English and Northern Irish taxpayers. However, it should be noted that the responsibility for taxing income from savings and dividends remains with the central UK government.
In the first year of its new powers, the National Assembly for Wales has decided that Welsh rates of income tax for 2019-20 will remain at the same levels as found in England and Northern Ireland.
However, in a recent mix-up, HMRC revealed it had released Scottish tax codes (S codes) to some Welsh employers, instead of the ‘C’ prefix applicable to Welsh taxpayers. A result of the error has been that some Welsh employees have been charged income tax according to Scottish rates and bands instead of Welsh.
The effect of the coding mix up was exacerbated by the fact that, whilst the rates of income tax in England and Northern Ireland match those in Wales, the Scottish income tax rates are higher.
Since the error came to light, HMRC have admitted that they do not know how many taxpayers have been affected, whilst the Welsh tax codes are to be issued this month (June).
Llyr Gruffydd, Chair of the National Assembly for Wales’ Finance Committee, said:
‘We raised concerns about the flagging process for identifying Welsh taxpayers during our enquiries into fiscal devolution and the Welsh government’s draft budget.
‘On each occasion, we were told the matter was in hand, and the lessons from the devolution of income tax powers to Scotland, where there were similar issues, had been soundly learned and would be put into effect. We are seeking an immediate explanation of how this has happened and will be asking representatives from HMRC to appear before this Committee in the near future.’
If you are concerned that this tax code mix-up may affect you, please call us for guidance.
The Office of Tax Simplification has released a new report that follows on from a previous review of the Business Life Cycle published in April 2018.
The new report, “Simplifying everyday tax for smaller business”, discloses that, of the 5.7 million businesses in the UK, 99% are small owner-managed businesses. Furthermore, as many as three quarters do not engage other employees.
It is these stark figures which have led OTS to strongly recommend everyday tax be simplified for these businesses, and for more guidance to be available for new start-ups.
The recommendations in the report cover five key areas:
- Simple step-by-step guidance about the key things a business needs to do in its early days to help things run smoothly;
- Improving the operation of the PAYE system;
- Implementation of HMRC’s Agents Strategy;
- Improving the mechanics of the Corporation Tax return process;
- Ensuring that tax changes are built on an understanding of business processes.
The full report is available to read online. However, should you wish to discuss any of the key areas of the Business Life Cycle, please get in touch.
The HMRC form P11D is the form employers use to report the details of taxable expenses and benefits provided to employees and directors during the course of a tax year, after that year has ended.
Employees pay tax on the benefits disclosed on the submitted P11D via a PAYE coding adjustment or through self-assessment.
If the benefits have been payrolled, meaning that have been reported to HMRC as they arise and included in the operation of the employer’s payroll, they are taxed in-year. As a result, they do not need to be reported after the year has ended via the P11D routine.
HMRC have provided a toolkit which includes a checklist which can be used to ensure the forms are completed correctly.
It could potentially be quite time-consuming to compile all the necessary information for these forms, so we would recommend that you do not leave it to the last minute.
Warning: 2019 P11Ds and their supporting forms must be filed with HMRC by the 6 July 2019.
If you would like assistance with completing the forms, or have related queries, please do not hesitate to contact us.
In a recent report by the Low Pay Commission (LPC), it was found that the number of people being paid less than the statutory minimum wage is on the rise.
In April 2018, 439,000 workers were paid less than the National Minimum Wage (NMW), and out of those individuals, 369,000 were employees aged 25 and over. This was an increase from the previous year.
The new rates, applicable from the 1 April 2019 are as follows.
|Minimum wage rates effective 1 April 2019||Hourly rate|
|25 and over||£8.21|
|21 to 24||7.70|
|18 to 20||£6.15|
|Accommodation Offset||£7.55 per day: £52.85 per week|
The report found women to be more likely than men to be paid below the minimum wage. It also highlighted that the youngest and oldest workers have a higher chance of being underpaid.
Underpayment was also found to be more likely in sectors including hospitality, cleaning, retail, maintenance, and childcare.
In response to the report, Bryan Sanderson, the Chair of the LPC, said:
‘Our analysis reveals a worrying number of people are being paid less than the minimum wage. We recently celebrated 20 years of the minimum wage – it has raised pay for millions of workers, but it is essential that people receive what they are entitled to.
‘It is also vital for businesses to be able to operate on a level playing field, and not be illegally undercut on wages.’
If you are having issues in relation to your payroll, please contact us for more guidance.
5 Top Tips for Successful Freelancing
Here we provide some top tips for keeping your freelancing work organised, healthy, and successful! Although it is not possible to provide a one-size-fits-all plan, these tips will certainly help to keep your freelancing affairs in shape.
1. Draw up a contract.
Regardless of your skillset – whether it is graphic design, project management, or writing – every new client project needs to be issued with a contract. While, at the outset, dispute might be far from your mind, this is the go-to document that others will seek to review should any disagreement arise later.
If you’re new to freelancing, then a contract template is a great place to start – to avoid your getting too preoccupied with creating the perfect contract. You can then add more information where necessary and make improvements along the way.
Even the simplest contract should include all of the following key terms:
- The nature of your engagement and the services that you’ve agreed to perform.
- Assurances that your client’s information will be kept confidentially.
- How much you will be paid, and when, throughout the project.
- Details of any ownership of intellectual property.
- Once your work has been accepted by the client, the client also accepts full responsibility for any use of the project files moving forward.
- Details of liability insurance.
- Cancellation procedure for you and your client.
- Membership of relevant professional bodies.
2. Agree payment terms before starting a project.
A big issue with freelancing is ensuring that you’re paid enough, that you’re paid on time – and that you actually are paid. Therefore, to ensure that you are going to get paid, it is best to agree the payment terms upfront. This is better than diving into a new project and trying to resolve payment later.
Depending on the nature of the contract under negotiation, a successful payment structure can be to request 50% to be paid upfront, and the remaining 50% upon completion – but before you deliver the completed project files.
In cases in which the contract is of an ongoing nature, you may wish to agree stage payments, whereby money is paid after you have passed milestones pre-agreed in the contract. You may also want to consider regular instalments.
The price you elect to charge as a Freelancer should consider time spent on tasks such as sourcing clients, preparing proposals, sending/managing invoices, meetings, and other items which are required to run your freelancing business. By not considering these tasks in your pricing there is the risk of not be paid sufficiently.
3. Be prepared to say ‘no’.
When in the process of agreeing the terms of the project, don’t be afraid to say ‘no’. It’s too easy to get caught up in the moment and to agree to everything your client asks – because you want the project and because you want a happy client.
But promising too much can come with a whole array of problems. It can end with you spending too long on an increasingly unprofitable project and can risk your not being able to deliver the project in the agreed timescale.
4. Create a portfolio.
Create a portfolio of projects in which you specialise to showcase to prospective clients. We encourage including projects specifically in your specialist area – rather than putting together a portfolio of everything on which you have ever worked.
If there is a particular avenue to which you want to stick, then make sure you do. Don’t take on those projects you fear you’re going to struggle to complete or that may take you too long to deliver.
This portfolio will also ensure clients best understand the work you are able to deliver and the expected standard they are going to receive. If a client is asking for work outside of this scope, be transparent about what you are, and are not, able to offer them.
5. Stay on top of your finances!
As a freelancer, it is vital to view your finances as would a small business owner. Make sure you are on top of your numbers, and ask yourself the following:
- What is my business revenue?
- What is my monthly living expenditure?
- How many visits is my website getting each month?
- What is my most popular service?
- How much time is spent on each project, and am I providing accurate estimates?
If you are a long-term freelancer, then you may want to consider how you are allocating your earnings. For example, are you saving for VAT, business expenses, and making pension contributions? These are hugely important considerations in the long run.
If you’re unsure how to best plan for these business costs, please reach out to us for more guidance around planning for your business and your personal financial affairs!
IR35, or the Off-Payroll working rules, has been published by HMRC a year early. The original launch date was the 6 April 2020.
HMRC has published a four-step guide to help businesses to check the cases in which the off-payroll working rules apply. As part of the guidance, HMRC states that those organisations using the individual’s service are responsible for checking whether the Off-Payroll working rules apply or not.
The open consultation closed on the 28th May and HMRC is looking for responses on the following matters:
- The scope of the reform and the impact on non-corporate engagers;
- Information requirements for engagers, fee payers and personal service companies (PSCs);
- How to address potential disagreements regarding an individual’s employment status.
The consultation includes HMRC’s plans regarding education and support for those businesses that may be affected.
As part of the Scotland Act 2016, the Scottish Parliament can charge travellers tax when leaving Scottish airports. As a result, proposals have been put forward with a view to replace the UK APD with the new ADT.
ADT was scheduled to start from April 2018, but it has now been delayed due to issues regarding exemptions which apply to airports in the Highlands and Islands.
Kate Forbes MSP, Minister for Public Finance and Digital Economy, has commented:
‘The Scottish government has been clear that it cannot take on ADT until a solution to these issues has been found, because to do so would compromise the devolved powers and risk damage to the Highlands and Islands economy.
‘While we work towards a resolution to the Highlands and Islands exemption, we continue to call on the UK government to reduce APD rates to support connectivity and economic growth in Scotland and across the UK.’
The Pensions Dashboard is a new Government initiative which will now move forward, it has been confirmed.
The dashboard will be introduced with a view to allow individuals to save for retirement and to view information from multiple pensions on one centralised interface. The dashboard is meant to ‘provide an easy to access online view of a saver’s pension’, and to include the state pension.
The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) will bring forward legislation for pension scheme providers to ensure consumer data is available to them through the dashboard.
Mike Cherry, National Chairman of the Federation of Small Businesses (FSB), said:
‘The government’s commitment to compel pension schemes to share data with platforms through primary legislation is particularly welcome. Some urgency is now required, and we question the three to four-year timeframe for schemes to prepare data for dashboards.’
The latest version of the Employer Bulletin is available to view online.
The April edition includes the following topics, and more:
- Cash Allowances, Flexible Benefits Packages and Salary Sacrifice
- Unpaid work trials and the National Minimum Wage
- EU Exit Preparedness and SMEs
- Diesel Supplement Company Car Tax Changes to meet Euro standard 6d
- Student Loans
- Construction Industry Scheme – helpful reminders for contractors and subcontractors
- Welsh rate of income tax and Scottish Income Tax
- PAYE Tools
- Tax-Free Childcare
HMRC and Action Fraud have warned of high numbers of springtime scams. These tend to target those who may be less experienced with the tax system, such as the young and the elderly.
Between March and May 2018, HMRC received nearly 250,000 reports of phishing, and requested to have more than 6,000 websites taken down.
An Ofcom Communications Market Report in 2018 found that the majority of text and email scams were sent via smartphone. It noted that, at this time, 95% of 16-24-year olds and 51% of those aged 55 and over owned a smartphone.
The following pointers have been issued by HMRC to help you to work out if you are being targeted by a scam:
- Have you been asked to provide confidential information?
- Is it a text message refund which sounds too good to be true?
- Protect your confidential information!
- Report your concerns!
Genuine organisations, such as HMRC, will not contact you to ask for your PIN, bank details, or even a password.
HMRC will never inform you of a refund via e-mail or SMS.
Do not give out private details, respond to suspicious text messages, download attachments from an unknown sender, or click links within emails if you are unsure of the origin or nature.
Ensure you forward emails and information regarding any suspicious calls or emails from HMRC to email@example.com. Forward suspicious text messages to 60599.
If you have suffered a financial loss as a result of these scams, it is recommended that you contact Action Fraud on 0300 123 2040. Alternatively, use their online fraud reporting tool for further help.
HMRC have also released a handy guide to help you check if correspondence is genuinely from them.
Angela MacDonald, Head of Customer Services at HMRC, has said:
‘We are determined to protect honest people from these fraudsters who will stop at nothing to make their phishing scams appear legitimate.
‘HMRC is currently shutting down hundreds of phishing sites a month. If you receive one of these emails or texts, don’t respond and report it to HMRC so that more online criminals are stopped in their tracks.’
According to Close Brothers, in terms of productivity – something assumed to be one of the largest challenges facing business – the UK lags behind the rest of the G7 by 16%. Nearly half of UK small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) say new technology would increase overall productivity by 46%, improve staff efficiency by 50%, and help upskill staff by 43%.
In this context, only 45% of UK small business have invested recently in technology, with three out of four businesses having no plans to invest in technology.
Below are three ways to improve productivity for your business.
Take your Accounting to the Cloud
The filing of VAT returns online – under the UK government’s Making Tax Digital (MTD) initiative – requires ongoing management of your company accounts, from invoicing and payments to expenses and payroll.
There are plenty of options in regard to platforms to help you do this, with each platform having the tools to effectively managing accounts. However, not all solutions on the market have been finalised for Making Tax Digital.
Recommended is QuickBooks Online, with the company suggesting that by filing VAT returns online, companies will have a better overview of cash flow in real time and will be able to manage human resources better – thus freeing time for more productive activities such as sales, marketing, and training.
MTD has the power to catalyse an immediate annual £6.9 billion net gain in productivity for the UK economy, or £46 billion over five years, according to Intuit QuickBooks.
Manage your Customer Journey through Customer Relationship Management
Modern businesses need to digitize the customer relationship through CRM, customer-relationship management. This will strengthen their understanding and management of their customers’ journey, so to increase revenues and reduce costs.
Whether this is accomplished by winning new customers, finding new ways to deliver more value to existing customers, or improving efficiency and productivity, it’s crucial to have good visibility of what’s happening in the business – and effective control over the key ways to improve performance.
CRM gives businesses that visibility and control. In addition, CRM provides improved communication and collaboration, automation of everyday tasks, and better reporting capabilities. All of these will be invaluable to upping your productivity – but potentially the biggest boon is centralisation: having all your information in one place.
Lastly, make sure CRM is integrated into your cloud accounting package, to drive a more effective and integrated front office back office approach.
Automate and Socialise your Marketing
Automated marketing amplifies what you’re already doing in marketing. It automates all the digital channels through which you push messages out.
A decade ago, this meant scheduling emails. Today, automated marketing systems have become more sophisticated and broader, handling online marketing campaigns whether it’s through Twitter or email or online advertising.
Marketing automation strengthens customer relationships, scales marketing campaigns, and makes it easy to integrate lead generation efforts into the sales cycle. Through this, it enables the company to be more creative with saved time, harnessing hard-won marketing leads to sales and measuring their campaign’s success. In turn, this allows marketers to quickly and easily profile and target customers, gather business intelligence, and run email campaigns and events.
Applying these three approaches will accelerate your business productivity and help your business survive and thrive.
The Spring Statement, delivered in March by Philip Hammond, included an update and open consultation on Structures and Buildings Allowance (SBA).
The relief is available for new commercial structures and buildings – and will also be available where an existing structure or building has been improved or against the cost of renovating existing structures and buildings.
The amount of relief available is limited to the initial cost of building or renovation and can be provided over a fifty-year period at a flat rate of 2%. Only some expenses will qualify for the relief, and the structures or buildings must be used for qualifying purposes, such as trades, professions, vocations and some UK or overseas property businesses or commercial lettings.
The Structures and Buildings Allowance, introduced 29 October 2018, is available to support businesses investing in the UK. The allowance aims to encourage the development of new structural assets and to provide tax relief.
The consultation on draft legislation was open until 24 April 2019.
The new Making Tax Digital for VAT (MTDfV) rules came into effect on the 1 April 2019. The new rules require businesses with an annual VAT-taxable turnover above £85,000 to keep digital records for VAT purposes, and to submit their VAT return to HMRC using MTD-compatible accounting packages, such as QuickBooks.
The HMRC scheme will ultimately require all taxpayers to move over to digital filing. However, at the moment, there is no proposal to widen compulsory MTD until at least April 2021.
Mel Stride MP, Financial Secretary to the Treasury, has said:
‘In a world where businesses are already banking, paying bills and shopping online, it is important that the tax system moves into the 21st century.’
Although the new rules are now applicable, VAT registered businesses with more complex requirements will not have to comply until the start of their first VAT return period after the 30 September 2019.
The government has also confirmed that there will be no penalties regarding the first year of digital filing and record keeping, in cases where a VAT registered entity has tried to comply with the digital record-keeping requirements and has failed due to software-related issues.
P11D forms are due, by 6 July 2019, for the year which ended on 5 April 2019.
The P11D is used to report benefits and some expenses provided to directors and employees. If, as an employer, you report your employee benefits by year, using payrolling, you do not need to complete a P11D.
In addition to payrolling or filing a P11D, employers will also need to pay Class 1A National Insurance Contributions at 13.8% in respect of the majority of employee benefits they provide. The amount owed can be calculated using the P11(b) form.
Employer’s need to pay Class 1A National Insurance Contributions by the 19th July (or 22nd, if payed electronically).
Warning: It can take time to gather the information required, so we would recommend that it is not left until the last minute!
The new tax year, effective from 6 April 2019, brings changes to income tax allowances and bands. The following updates now apply.
Rates of Tax
While the basic rate of tax will remain at 20%, the 2019/20 basic rate band – the threshold above which income is taxable at this rate – has increased by £3,000 from £34,500 to £37,500.
In addition, the threshold at which the 40% higher rate tax band applies reaches £50,000.
Individuals with taxable income over £150,000 will continue to pay income tax at an additional rate of 45% on their top slice of taxable income.
Interestingly, the personal allowance, previously £11,850, increased by £650 on the 6 April to £12,500. However, for individuals with an ‘adjusted net income’ of over £100,000, the personal allowance continues to be reduced by £1 for every £2 of income over £100,000 – until it tapers to nil as a person’s adjusted net income reaches £125,000.
Where one part of a couple, who are either married or in a civil partnership, does not pay income tax – or has a taxable income below their personal allowance – they are entitled to transfer 10% of their unused personal allowance to their partner or spouse. This is provided that the recipient is no more than a basic rate taxpayer.
Welsh Income Tax Updates
From April 2019, the Welsh government now enjoys income tax rate-setting powers. For the 2019/20 tax year, it has been decided that Welsh Income Tax Rates will be kept at a level that leaves Welsh taxpayers in the same position as their English and Northern Irish counterparts.
Scottish Income Tax Rates
The rates of income tax in Scotland are different from the rest of the UK, as follows:
Scottish income tax: 2019-2020
|Over £12,500 – £14,549||Starter Rate||19%|
|Over £14,549 – £24,944||Scottish Basic Rate||20%|
|Over £24,944 – £43,430||Intermediate Rate||21%|
|Over £43,430 – £150,000||Higher Rate||41%|
|Over £150,000||Top Rate||46%|
The UK Government has issued new advice to small businesses on how they could be affected by the UK’s leaving the EU. The documents contain advice regarding a range of issues, such as sending and receiving personal data and EU-UK trading.
The UK government recommends that businesses ensure they are prepared for Brexit, particularly considering the ongoing uncertainty surrounding the outcome. Businesses which import or export goods to the EU need to apply for a UK Economic Operation Registration and Identification number (EORI), to continue training with the bloc after Brexit.
Service-centred businesses and those that operate in the EU are likely to need to adhere to new rules after Brexit.
Businesses which own intellectual property in the EU are also likely to be affected, with regards to copyright, trademarks, patents, etc. If this affects you, you are recommended to seek advice from the EU Exit tool.
If the UK crashes out of the EU with no deal, many UK businesses will need to apply the same processes to EU trade that apply when trading with the rest of the world. For instance, they will need to register for an Economic Operator and Registration Identification number, commonly referred to as an EORI number.
HMRC is warning UK businesses that have only ever traded inside the EU that they will need to have an EORI number to continue their EU trading.
Worryingly, the latest figures from HMRC indicate only 17% of potentially affected businesses have registered for an EORI.
If you think that your business could be affected and you do not already have a UK EORI number, you’ll need to get one to import or export goods with the EU from 11pm UK time on 12 April 2019.
Warning: It could take 3 days to get a UK EORI number, so you should apply now.
You/your business should apply, if:
- you’re a sole trader who is resident in the UK;
- your company or partnership has a registered office in the UK;
- your company or partnership has a permanent place of business in the UK where they carry out their business activities.
Businesses that import goods into the UK from the EU may register for (TSP), Transitional Simplified Procedures, to allow import without having to make a full customs declaration at the border and to postpone paying any import duties. For imports using other locations, and for exports, standard customs declarations will apply.
Mel Stride MP, Financial Secretary to the Treasury, stated, “We want businesses to be able to continue trading with minimal disruption in any scenario, but we also know that people tend to leave things until the last minute and we would urge against that.”
To help drive more customers to your website, it is key to maximise the impact from search through SEO (Search Engine Optimisation). Improved SEO enables your website to be discovered and to rank with relevance, so that it appears at the top of the search engine results. The process of optimisation is not a one-time process – but rather one that requires maintenance, tuning, and continuous testing and monitoring.
The following guide is a three-step strategy to help you achieve this.
Step 1: Target Market Business Analysis
Setting Goals and Objectives
Before you get started, ensure that you can measure the ROI (return on investment) from any changes you implement, deciding what is the expected number of visitors you will need to your site vs the baseline today. This is the measure that you can then track from.
Get specific on the goals to determine and set measures for specific pages visited and product / services reviewed.
Keywords are absolutely critical for getting located. These work through setting your “meta sets”, visible text and code.
Once you have the list, then look to prioritise the targeted search term related to what you expect your customers to look for. Keep this more in the framing of natural language rather than specific products you have – i.e. “looking for a parasol” rather than “name of brand parasol”. Think what you would type into a search engine. People rarely search to find a specific business – so you need to think of solving a customer problem or meeting a customer need. Test this with your customers and amend accordingly.
Keyword analysis follows, and this helps to further identify a targeted list of key words and phrases. Review competitive lists and other industry sources as well as prioritising keywords and phrases, plurals, singulars, and misspellings.
Step 2: Content Optimisation and Submission
Create page titles
Keyword-based titles help to establish page theme and direction for your keywords.
Create meta tags
Meta description tags can influence click-throughs but aren’t directly used for rankings. (Google doesn’t use the keywords tag anymore.)
Place strategic search phrases on pages
Integrate selected keywords into your website source code and existing content on designated pages. Make sure to apply a suggested guideline of one to three keywords/phrases per content page and add more pages to complete the list. Ensure that related words are used as a natural inclusion of your keywords. It helps the search engines quickly determine what the page is about. A natural approach to this works best.
the past, 100 to 300 words on a page was recommended. Many tests show that pages with 800 to 2,000 words can outperform shorter ones. In the end, the users, the marketplace, content and links will determine the popularity and ranking numbers.
Develop new sitemaps for Google and Bing
Make it easier for search engines to index your website. Create both XML and HTML versions. An HTML version is the first step. XML sitemaps can easily be submitted via Google and Bing webmaster tools.
Submit website to directories (limited use)
Professional search marketers don’t submit the URL to the major search engines, but it’s possible to do so. A better and faster way is to get links back to your site naturally. Links get your site indexed by the search engines.
However, you should submit your URL to directories such as Yahoo! (paid), Business.com (paid), and DMOZ (free). Some may choose to include AdSense (google.com/AdSense) scripts on a new site to get their Google Media bot to visit. It will likely get your pages indexed quickly.
Step 3: Continuous Testing and Measuring
Test and measure.
Analyse search engine rankings and web traffic to determine the effectiveness of the programmes you’ve implemented, including an assessment of individual keyword performance. Test the results of changes, and keep changes tracked in an Excel spreadsheet, or whatever you’re comfortable with.
Ongoing addition and modification of keywords and website content is necessary to continually improve search engine rankings, so growth doesn’t stall or decline from neglect. You also want to review your link strategy and ensure that your inbound and outbound links are relevant to your business.
A blog can provide you with the necessary structure and ease of content addition that you need. Your hosting company can typically help you with the setup/installation of a blog.
The Pensions Regulator has issued guidance for employers concerning the increase in minimum pension contributions, which took effect on 6 April 2019.
|Duration||Employer minimum||Total minimum contribution|
|6 April 2019 onwards||3%||8%|
While not mentioned within Chancellor Philip Hammond’s Spring Statement, he made in his written response a strong reference to the Government’s commitment to Making Tax Digital for VAT (MTDfV). He also declared himself satisfied with the way the MTDfV pilot is progressing.
The Chancellor’s statement confirmed a light touch (soft-landing) approach to penalties in the first year of implementation: “Where businesses are doing their best to comply, no filing or record keeping penalties will be issued. “
No further mandation before 2021
Hammond’s written response referenced an earlier promise not to extend the mandation of MTD to any new taxes or businesses until the MTDfV system had been shown to work well – and not before 2021 at the earliest.
Given that the immediate focus will be on supporting businesses to transition to the new service, this can only be described as a common-sense move, and one that provides some certainty.
Latest from HMRC
The publication of the Chancellor’s Spring Statement was followed immediately by a statement from Theresa Middleton (HMRC Director, Making Tax Digital Programme):
“Our VAT pilot service is progressing well, with over 46,000 businesses in the pilot and over 200 MTD compatible software products available, including some free products, and over 140 existing subscription products being updated at no cost at all.”
Middleton’s comments also referenced that HMRC “…continues to listen to feedback from business and recognises the importance of supporting businesses through the transition to MTD.”
What is MTDfV?
It is a major change to the way that VAT-registered businesses – only those with a VAT-taxable turnover of £85,000 or more – will keep their VAT records. These will be recorded entirely digitally, and businesses will need to submit their VAT returns using MTD compatible software for VAT periods starting on or after 1 April 2019.
The National Minimum Wage (NMW) and National Living Wage (NLW), the legal minimum wage rates that must be paid to employees increased on the 1 April, with employers liable to be penalised for any failure to comply.
The new rates are:
|Rate from 1 April 2018||Rate from 1 April 2019|
|NLW for workers aged 25 and over||£7.83||£8.21|
|NMW main rate for workers aged 21-24||£7.38||£7.70|
|NMW 18-20 rate||£5.90||£6.15|
|NMW 16-17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18||£4.20||£4.35|
|NMW apprentice rate for under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship||£3.70||£3.90|
HMRC has just published their new company car advisory fuel rates, which are effective from the 1 March 2019.
The rates only apply when, as an employer, you either:
- reimburse employees for business travel in their company cars; or,
- require employees to repay the cost of fuel used for private travel.
You must not use these rates in any other circumstances.
|1400cc or less||11p|
|1401cc – 2000cc||14p|
|1400cc or less||7p|
|1401cc – 2000cc||8p|
|1400cc or less||10p|
|1401cc – 2000cc||11p|
In the February Bulletin, HMRC has included updates on the following:
- End of year reporting;
- Reporting expenses and benefits;
- Student Loan notices and a new type of Student Loan repayment that employers will need to be able to process via payroll (Post Graduate Loans);
- Updates to the Starter checklist – used for new employees;
- Reporting the Disguised Remuneration Loan Charge;
- Updates to P9 Notices of Coding;
- Payrolling benefits in kind;
- Scottish Income Tax; and
- the Welsh Rate of Income Tax and new codes for Welsh taxpayers.
To download the Bulletin, click here.
Most businesses with VAT return periods beginning on or after 1 April 2019 will need to comply with the regulations mandated for VAT.
For businesses with “more complex” VAT, this date has been deferred to 1 October 2019. This delay applies to trusts, not for profit organizations not set up as companies, VAT divisions, VAT groups, public sector entities such as government departments and NHS Trusts. The latter will have to provide additional information on their VAT return.
The delay also applies to local authorities, public corporations, traders based overseas, those required to make payments on account, and annual accounting scheme users.
For more information visit here for the statement on Making Tax Digital made by Mel Stride, The Financial Secretary to the Treasury.
If you have made the decision to move towards working for yourself, the options to consider are whether to be a sole trader, a shareholding director of a limited company, or to trade as a partnership.
Once you’ve decided, HMRC will need to be informed. If you choose to go self-employed or to enter into a partnership, HMRC will need to be advised so that they can register you to receive a self-assessment tax return. They will also need to know if you form a limited company.
As a self-employed person (including a partner) it is likely that you will be required to pay income tax and Class 2 and 4 National Insurance contributions under self-assessment.
1. Start-up costs
Starting up a new business can be a costly exercise, and you will need to open a new business bank account for all your future work-related expenditure. It is vital to always keep records of accounts to help ensure the correct taxable profit is reported to HMRC after the end of any tax year.
Budgeting and forecasting
When writing your financial forecast for the business, it is recommended that you factor in the following:
- Do you have access to funds which you can use to start up the business?
- Do you have savings to carry you through periods of no income or unexpected expenses?
- Are there any life changing events on the horizon, such as moving to a new house or having a new baby?
- When employing staff, have you considered sick pay and annual leave?
2. Are credits or grants available?
Understand if you are eligible to claim benefits, tax credits or even grants. You can check this easily by accessing organisations like the Citizens Advice Bureau or Gov.UK websites to establish what you might be eligible for.
To go self-employed, you’ll need to decide where to locate your new business. It may be possible to run it from the comfort of your own home, or you may need to rent or purchase another property as your place of work.
When renting business premises, it is vital that you verify whether there are any rules in place restricting business activity, and you check if the environment is suitable for the type of work which will take place.
If you are renting an office space, you must ensure that you know the monthly costs, outside of the initial rental payments, such as services, or any upcoming upgrades to the building which may increase the rental costs in the future.
Don’t forget, if you convert part of your home into businesses premises, you may be required to pay business rates on top of any existing council tax commitment. You will also be asked to pay these rates if you convert any part of your property into a shop/workshop or if client visits become a daily occurrence and you have dedicated rooms in your home solely for business purposes.
Please call us, if you’re concerned that you might be affected by what we describe in the article. It is always best to be sure of your position.
Check your insurance policy and if in any doubt call your broker to see if you need to take out additional cover for any business activity within your household. This is not an expensive addition and most companies will combine additional cover into one domestic and business policy. If your business requires clients to enter your property, you may be advised to take out public liability insurance, another inexpensive addition to your insurance policy.
You may also be required to hold a license, depending on the nature of your business.
5. Business name
When deciding whether you are going to use a trading name for the business, you will need to be aware of any restrictions in place.
If you thinking of forming a company, you can check if your proposed company name is already in use by using the Companies House name availability checker.
If the business will have a website, you will need to check if there are suitable domains available for your business name.
Once everything is in place, you can get to work on your new business and enjoy working for yourself.
For more information on setting up as self-employed, forming a limited company, and selecting the right cloud accounting solutions, such as QuickBooks, then please contact us.
The Insolvency Service has urged individuals saving for retirement to protect their pension pots from criminals and ‘negligent trustees’.
Research carried out by the Service found that criminals use a range of tactics to convince savers to part with their funds, including persuading individuals to access their pension and invest in unregulated schemes.
Pension scam victims lost an average of £91,000 to criminals in 2018, according to Financial Conduct Authority research. Criminals often use cold-calls and offers of free pension reviews to convince their victims to comply.
The Insolvency Service has urged savers to be wary of calls that come out of the blue; to seek financial advice before altering their pension arrangements or making investments; and to not be pressured into making decisions about their pension.
Conservative Minister Kelly Tolhurst said:
‘If you are approached to make an investment from your pension, always do your homework and seek independent advice, if necessary, to help you make an informed decision.
‘The government continues to work closely with the Insolvency Service who are working to clamp down on rogue companies targeting vulnerable people.’
The “Be a smart investor” section of the FCA website has further information about scams, and if you suspect you have been the target of a scam you can report it through the UK’s national reporting Centre for fraud and cybercrime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Please speak to us if you want to know more about protecting yourself from fraud.
The non-profit organisation Big Brother Watch has made a report to the Information Commissioners Office (ICO), claiming that HMRC has broken data protection laws by capturing millions of callers’ voice data on the HMRC Voice ID System, and that people have been ‘railroaded into a mass ID scheme by the back door’.
HMRC launched the system in 2017, and it works by having the caller say a key phrase instead of a password to gain access to their accounts.
A freedom of information request found that approximately seven million tax payers are enrolled in the Voice ID database. Around 162,185 individuals have chosen to opt out of the scheme and have their files deleted by HMRC.
An HMRC spokesperson has said:
‘Our Voice ID system is very popular with millions of customers as it gives a quick route to access accounts by phone.
All our data is stored securely, and customers can opt out of Voice ID or delete their records any time they want.’
The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Philip Hammond, has announced that the government will respond to the forecast from the Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR) in the Spring Statement on Wednesday 13 March 2019.
While Hammond has already stated that the Spring Statement is not a mini Budget, he may take the opportunity to announce consultations concerning future tax changes.
Don’t worry about missing anything. We will keep you posted regarding any important developments.
UK VAT-registered businesses which trade with the EU are being urged by HMRC to be prepared for the possibility of a no-deal Brexit. HMRC sent letters to 145,000 firms advising businesses to take three actions ahead of the 29th March 2019 leave date:
- Register for a UK Economic Operator Registration and Identification (EORI) number.
- Decide whether a customs agent will be used to make import and/or export declarations, or whether declarations will be made by the business via software which is compatible with HMRCs systems.
- Contact the organisations responsible for moving goods (such as haulage firms) in order to ascertain whether the business will need to supply additional information to complete safety and security declarations, or whether it will need to submit these declarations itself.
A report jointly published by HMRC and the National Audit Office (NAO) recently revealed that approximately 55 million customs declarations are currently made by British businesses every year. This figure may rise to 255 million when the UK leaves the EU.
For more information please contact us. We’re here to help.
HMRC has extended the Making Tax Digital for VAT (MTDfV) pilot scheme to all eligible businesses, on the mandated compliance for VAT return periods beginning on or after 1 April 2019. However, MTDfV for some ‘more complex’ businesses has been deferred until 1 October 2019. This deferral applies to:
- Not-for-profit organisations which are not set up as companies
- VAT divisions, VAT groups, public sector entities such as government departments and NHS Trusts, which have to provide additional information on their VAT return;
- Local authorities
- Public corporations
- Traders based overseas
- Those required to make payments on account
- Annual accounting scheme users.
Businesses with a taxable turnover below the £85,000 threshold are also being encouraged by HMRC to sign up for MTD or MTD for income tax on a voluntary basis. They would gain the benefits of MTD, improve their business processes, and gain a better view of how their business is performing via accountancy software.
HMRC has also reiterated that Brexit will not affect the introduction of MTDfV. For more information please contact us. But, remember with VAT mandation coming in from the 1st August, you really can’t afford to delay.
The Pensions Regulator (TPR) is beginning to write reminders to all employers that, from 6 April 2019, the minimum amount to be paid to a workplace pension is increasing to 8% – and that they, the employers, must contribute at least 3% of the total contribution.
To be prepared for this increase, TPR have recommended seeking further guidance from their website, and to ensure that the payroll software used is compliant with the changes.
Alternatively, if you want informed, proactive advice, you can talk to us.
The Scottish Draft Budget took place on 12 December 2018. To assist those of you who might be affected, we have published a table containing the 2019/20 proposed rates and bands (for non-savings and non-dividend income), along with the 2018/19 rates and bands.
|Scottish Bands 2018/19||Scottish Bands 2019/20||Band Name||Scottish Rates|
|Over £11,850* - £13,850||Over £12,500* - £14,549||Starter||19%|
|Over £13,850 - £24,000||Over £14,549 - £24,944||Scottish Basic||20%|
|Over £24,000 - £43,430||Over £24,944 - £43,430||Intermediate||21%|
|Over £43,430 - 150,000**||Over £43,430 - 150,000**||Higher||41%|
|Over £150,000**||Over £150,000**||Top||46%|
* assuming the individual is entitled to a full UK personal allowance.
** The personal allowance will be reduced if an individual’s adjusted net income is above £100,000.
The allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 of income over £100,000.
The personal allowance is currently £11,850 for 2018/19 and will increase to £12,500 for 2019/2020.
- For UK taxpayers entitled to a full personal allowance, the higher rate is set at £50,000.
- The tax rates for non-savings and non-dividend income remain at 20%, 40%, and 45% for income over £150,000.
The rate for 2019/2020 will mean that Scottish employees earning approximately £27,000 from employment income will pay the same income tax as the rest of the UK on a similar income. Higher rate earners in Scotland with income of £150,000 and over will pay, approximately, £2,670 of income tax more than those on a similar income in the rest of the UK.
In the UK, the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has mandated that the nine largest current account providers must offer standardized Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for current accounts to Account Information Service Providers (AISPs) and for payments to Payment Initiation Service Providers (PISPs).
What does this mean? By providing access to this data from third parties and banks, Open Banking provides small businesses with the opportunity, through technology such as QuickBooks Online, to have a real-time view of their banking and transactional data.
This will help to more accurately predict tax liability (VAT payments), to proactively manage cashflow, to more quickly provide credit scores for loan and finance applications, and to offer the ability to analyse spend and buying patterns – all to help small businesses best budget their finances.
The UK is not at the forefront of Open Banking innovation globally, but it is estimated that Open Banking has the potential to create a revenue opportunity of at least £7.2bn by 2022 across retail and SME markets.
HMRC have published an updated list containing details of taxpayers who have been penalised for deliberate errors in their tax returns or have purposely failed to comply with tax requirements.
HMRC are able to publish details where an investigation has been made and where the taxpayer has been charged one or more penalties for deliberate tax evasion on tax of more than £25,000.
The 2019/20 Scottish Draft Budget includes changes to Scottish Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT).
The policy priority for residential Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) continues to be to help first-time buyers and those moving through the property market.
The policy has helped over 80% of taxpayers to pay less LBTT than in England – or none at all.
The current rates and bands are as follows.
0 - £145,000
£145,001 - £250,000
£250,001 - £325,000
£325,001 - £750,000
£750,001 and over
The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.
First-time buyers’ relief
Relief is available for first-time buyers of properties costing up to £175,000. The relief increases the zero-tax threshold from £145,000 to £175,000. First-time buyers purchasing a property which is more than £175,000 will also benefit, and the relief will be apportioned only to the price below the threshold.
Higher rates of Land and Buildings Transaction Tax
Certain residential properties, such as buy-to-let and second homes, incur higher rates of LBTT.
From the 25 January 2019, the Additional Dwelling Supplement (ADS) increased from 3% to 4% and will apply to transactions which occurred before the 12 December 2018. ADS is applicable where an individual owns, or partially owns, a property, or purchases another which is not replacing a main residence. There is an eighteen-month rule which will prevent some purchases incurring the additional rates.
Non-residential rates and bands
The Government has reduced the non-residential LBTT rates from 3% to 1%, and increased the upper rate from 4.5% to 5%, with the starting threshold reduced to £250,000 from £350,000.
These changes will not apply where a transaction was started before the 12 December 2018.
The revised rates and bands for non-residential LBTT transactions are as follows.
0 - £145,000
£145,001 - £250,000
£250,001 - £325,000
£325,001 - £750,000
£750,001 and over
As the deadline approaches for submitting returns, here are HMRC’s strangest reasons for late or failed submissions, from taxpayers who missed the Self-Assessment deadline last year.
- My mother-in-law is a witch and put a curse on me.
- I’m too short to reach the post box.
- I was just too busy – my first maid left, my second maid stole from me, and my third maid was very slow to learn.
- Our junior member of staff registered our client in Self-Assessment by mistake because they were not wearing their glasses.
- My boiler had broken, and my fingers were too cold to type.
There were also some dubious expenses claims for unconvincing items like woolly underwear and pet insurance for a dog. Some of the most questionable include:
- A carpenter claiming £900 for a 55-inch TV and sound bar – to help him price his jobs.
- £40 on extra woolly underwear, for five years.
- £756 for a dog’s pet insurance.
- A music subscription, so someone could listen to music while they worked
- A family holiday to Nigeria.
None of these excuses and expenses were successful!
HMRC have updated the online guidance available, now providing a detailed list of income tax and NIC rates applicable to employers for 2019/20. The comprehensive list can be used by employers for 2019/2020 for payroll and employee expenses.
The list includes:
- PAYE tax and Class 1 National Insurance Contributions
- Tax thresholds, rates, and codes
- Class 1 National Insurance thresholds
- Class 1 National Insurance rates
- Class 1A National Insurance: expenses and benefits
- Class 1B National Insurance: PAYE Settlement Agreements (PSAs)
- National Minimum Wage
- Statutory Maternity, Paternity, Adoption and Shared Parental Pay
- Statutory Sick Pay (SSP)
- Student loan and Postgraduate loan recovery
- Company cars: Advisory Fuel Rates (AFRs)
- Employee vehicles: Mileage Allowance Payments (MAPs)
A new online guide has been published by HMRC to aid employers in determining which benefits and expenses need to be declared in the P11D forms.
These forms can be completed online using:
- the PAYE online for employers’ service;
- or the online end-of-year expenses and benefits forms.
More details are available in the HMRC expenses and benefits guide.
MTD VAT Pilot is Now… Open to All
HMRC announced (10/1/2019) that their Making Tax Digital for VAT (MTDfV) pilot is now open to all those mandated to keep digitally compliant records and to file MTD-compatible VAT returns for return periods commencing after 31 March 2019.
In an email issued, HMRC stated: “this marks a significant milestone towards our ambition to become one of the most digitally advanced tax administrations in the world.”
HMRC boasts that over one hundred VAT-registered businesses are now signing up to the scheme on a daily basis, with more than 3,500 having already joined.
Even though the majority will not need to file their first MTD-complaint return until early August, the department wants “as many eligible businesses as possible to join the pilot ahead of the mandation of the service in April”, as it will provide assurance that the service works for all types of customer.
What does it mean?
This means that all VAT-registered entities with an annual VAT-able turnover in excess of the £85,000 compulsory registration threshold – i.e. those mandated to onboard from April – will now have the chance to test their accounting systems prior to April.
A minority of compulsory registered businesses – those with the most complex VAT affairs – have had their mandation date deferred to their first return period starting on or after 1 October 2019.
VAT groups now able to join the pilot
HMRC has also opened its MTDfV pilot to VAT groups with immediate effect, in order to enable them to start testing the service – even though they are not mandated to join until October.
The department “will continue to update you as we open up the pilot to the remainder of the population who are mandated to join from October.”
Want to know more?
As we leave 2018 behind, it’s worth taking stock of this period of increased regulation on customer data protection and privacy – in parallel with its acceleration in marketing technology capabilities.
This blog provides an overview of what to consider in terms of the evolving expectations of and demands on customer journeys and the impact they may have on the marketing aspect of your business. The following are the top three marketing trends and strategies to consider for 2019.
Evolving customer experience and journeys
2018 has brought more paths through which customers can satisfy their ideal approach to buying. With the onset of conversational user interfaces through voice search and recognition from the likes of Apple Siri and Amazon Alexa, this is adding a key customer touchpoint that many marketing approaches are yet to adopt and adapt to.
Such examples help fuel the customer need for convenience, being able to request what they want, when they want it, and how. As data becomes richer in terms of what we understand about customer behaviour, the personalisation of the customer experience can become deeper – albeit at a time when the use of data is being re-evaluated by companies such as Facebook.
If you are continuing with the over-used approach of marketing to “millennials”, this will limit how your brand or customer experience connects with twenty- to thirty-year olds today – as building your marketing approach will be subject to change in observing this consumer group.
There is a huge opportunity in blending customer data from silos, such as combining what you know from your business data on your customers with that which is coming from social data. Marketing teams will need to best balance the careful use of client data, segmenting based on specific personas and on an experience personalised on how customers wish to interact.
Be more than a service. Be a trusted brand with values
“Your brand is what people say about you when you’re not in the room” (Jeff Bezos)
For companies who have not yet positioned their brand to a set of values, you should do so in 2019. The majority of today’s customers are belief-driven buyers, harnessing their brand loyalty to what the company stands for – whether that is helping others, trust, quality, innovation etc. Although there maybe the danger of alienating some customers, brand values can deepen the customer-company relationship at an emotional level.
Manage your reputation; be prepared for a crisis
“It takes twenty years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it” (Warren Buffett)
“With Google, if a result is based on an established view, it will find its way on to the first page. Taking this approach, if the sentiment about your brand is a bad one, intentionally or accidently, then this may cause significant collateral damage for a long time – if a suitable response is not deployed.
“With the depth of opportunity for brands to advertise on nearly every website and platform consumers use, negative reviews can proliferate rapidly, and it is essential you are able to respond to help mitigate, correct, or address the perception. For example, this might be by listening to what people are saying online and making adjustments accordingly.
“No company is safe from reputation or brand crises and, as such, it is recommended to have a dedicated owner in your team to manage such an unfortunate event.
From 1st December 2018, there have been new company car advisory fuel rates published, stating that the previous rates can be used for up to one month from the date the new rates apply. The rates only apply to employees using a company car, and the advisory fuel rates for journeys undertaken on or after 1st December 2018.
|1400cc or less||12p|
|1401cc – 2000cc||15p|
|1600cc or less||8p|
|1601cc – 2000cc||10p|
|1600cc or less||10p|
|1601cc – 2000cc||12p|
On the 12 December 2018, Derek Mackay, the Scottish Finance Secretary, unveiled the Scottish Budget for 2019/20 .
You will recall that this time last year he introduced two additional tax bands, which meant that Scottish resident taxpayers would now pay income tax at five different rates on their non-savings non-dividend income. Meanwhile, their income from savings, dividends, and any capital gains were to be taxed by reference to the rates and tax bands effective in the rest of the UK.
The effect of last year’s changes means that, in many instances, it is necessary to perform two parallel tax computations to establish the total income tax due and the applicable CGT rate.
This year, it’s okay – you can breathe a sigh of relief. Mackay has resisted the temptation to introduce further divergence in the rates of income tax this year.
For 2019/20, a Scottish taxpayer will be entitled to the same £12,500 personal allowance as the rest of the UK. The Scottish allowance will also be withdrawn at the same rate of £1 for every £2 of adjusted net income over £100,000.
|Band in 2019/20||Name of band||Income tax rate %|
|12,501 – 14,549||Starter rate||19|
|14,550 – 24,944||Basic rate||20|
|24,945 – 43,430||Intermediate rate||21|
|43,431 – 150,000||Higher rate||41|
Due to the fact that the power to set NIC rates and thresholds has not been devolved, the rates and thresholds applicable in Scotland are the same as in the rest of the UK.
In her recent AccountingWEB article, Rebecca Cave drew attention to the fact that “Combining the NIC and income tax rates for a Scottish taxpayer produces some very odd marginal rates”.
Land and Building Transaction Tax changes
Mackay is to increase Scotland’s Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) Additional Dwelling Supplement (ADS) from 3% to 4%, effective from the 25 January 2019. This will take it out of line with the English equivalent Stamp Duty Land and Tax (SDLT) ADS rate of 3%.
The LBTT changes do not stop there. On the same date (25 January), the LBTT rates applicable to commercial property are also set to change:
|Up to 150,000||0||0|
|150,001 – 250,000||3||1|
|250,001 – 350,000||3||5|
The shape of things to come
Unless the Chancellor’s threat of a Spring Budget comes to fruition, we will have to wait until next autumn to see if the changes to LBTT will be mirrored by similar SDLT changes in England and Northern Ireland.
What about Wales?
Many of you reading this article will recall that since the 1 April 2018, the Welsh Assembly replaced SDLT with a Land Transaction Tax (LTT). It is, therefore, entirely possible that Wales might choose to adopt similar rates to those proposed by Scotland, or even to do something entirely different.
Shortly before Christmas, HMRC started to send out “encouragement letters” to businesses within the scope of Making Tax Digital for VAT (MTDfV) and to those who were eligible to join the MTDfV pilot. In total, over a million letters will be sent out before the end of February.
Parliament’s Economic Affairs Committee has warned HMRC that small businesses “could pay a heavy price for the proposed change.” It also stated that HMRC has “failed to adequately support small businesses” ahead of the introduction of MTDfV, set to start from 1 April 2019. The Committee has urged HMRC and the Government to “start listening” to small businesses’ MTDfV concerns.
The legislation affects businesses which have a VAT-able turnover above the current VAT registration threshold of £85,000. Affected firms will need to keep a digital record of their business transactions and submit their VAT returns through third-party software, or spreadsheets, linked to HMRC’s own systems – via an application programming interface (API).
Please contact us for more information about the forthcoming MTDfV and how it may impact on your business.
The first of two reports on inheritance tax (the second will be shared in Spring 2019) has been published by The Office of Tax Simplification (OTS).
An unprecedented 3,000 people shared their views about Inheritance Tax with the OTS, far more than in any previous review. Many of the respondents told the OTS that, at what is such a difficult time, they felt they were being asked to fill in complicated forms even when the relative who had died had only left a small amount.
The OTS’s own website stated:
“Too many people have to fill in Inheritance Tax forms, and the process is complex and old fashioned.
“Although Inheritance Tax is payable on less than 5% of the estates of the 570,000 people who die in the UK each year, around half of the families have to fill in the forms. Many also told us that their relative had worried about inheritance tax during their lifetime, even though it was not going to affect them.”
The first report gives an overview of concerns raised by the public and by professional advisors during the review and highlights the benefits of:
- Reducing or removing the requirement to submit forms for smaller or simpler estates, especially where there is no tax to pay;
- Simplifying the administration and guidance;
- Having banks and other financial institutions standardise their requirements;
- Automating the whole system by bringing it online.
It will be interesting to see what the second report has to say…
According to HMRC, more than 180,000 first-time buyers have benefitted from First Time Buyers’ Relief (FTBR) from Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT).
Introduced in the November 2017 Budget, FTBR has saved homeowners more than £426 million.
FTBR is a relief from a charge on SDLT for first-time buyers of residential property situated in England and Northern Ireland – where the market value purchase price is no more than £500,000.
If you, and anyone else you’re buying with, are a first-time buyer of a residential property, you can claim relief on purchases:
- made on or after 22 November 2017;
- Where the purchase price is no more than £500,000.
You will pay:
- 0% on the first £300,000;
- 5% on the remainder up to £500,000.
In the 2018 Autumn Budget, it was announced that FTBR had been extended to cover purchases of qualifying shared ownership properties where the first-time buyers did not elect to pay SDLT on the market value of the whole property when acquiring their initial interest.
The extension of the relief will apply retrospectively from 22 November 2017, meaning that a refund of tax will be payable to those who have paid SDLT after 22 November 2017 in circumstances which now qualify for first-time buyers’ relief.
- Scotland replaced SDLT with Land and Buildings Transaction Tax in 2015 and then, in February 2018, brought in its own version of FTBR.
- In April 2018, Wales replaced SDLT with Land Transaction Tax (LBT). While Wales does not have a version of FTBR, the residential property threshold at which LBT becomes payable (£180,000) is higher than in any other part of the UK.
Please do not hesitate to talk to us if you want to know more about any of the property transaction taxes within the UK.
In preparation for the possibility of the UK leaving the EU without a Withdrawal Agreement, the Government has published a collection of documents outlining what a “no deal” Brexit could mean.
They have stated: “The government does not want or expect a no deal scenario. However, it is the duty of a responsible government to prepare for a range of potential outcomes, including the unlikely event of no deal. In the event of leaving the EU without a deal, legislation will be necessary to ensure the UK’s Customs, VAT and Excise regimes function as intended after the UK leaves the EU and so, on a contingency basis, HM Treasury and HM Revenue and Customs will lay a number of Statutory Instruments (SIs) under the Taxation (Cross-border Trade) Act 2018 (TCTA) and the EU Withdrawal Act 2018 (EUWA).”
As events unfold in the rundown to 29 March, please reach out to us for help to understand how it may impact your business.
With Amazon’s recent decision on the new location for their business, here are some aspects to consider when making a similar investment of your own. The location should be consistent with your particular style and image. If your business is retailing, do you want a traditional store, for example? Or would you like to try operating from a kiosk or a cart that you can move from place to place?
Consider who your customers are
Demographics play an important part in your choice of location. Consider who your customers are and how important might be their proximity to you. For a retailer and some service providers, this is a critical consideration. For other types of businesses, however, it might not be as important.
Research and review the community to establish whether there is a sufficient percentage of that population that matches your customer profile. Do however think about communities that are largely dependent on a particular industry for their economy, as a downturn could be bad for business.
In addition, consider the work force skills required. Are there people with these skills in the community, with sufficient housing, schools, recreational opportunities, and culture?
Foot fall, traffic, and parking
If you are a retail business, then consider where shoppers are likely to pass by, rather than being hidden away. Monitor traffic outside of the location at various times throughout the day and assess how accessible the facility will be for customers, employees and suppliers.
If requiring deliverables, establish whether suppliers will be able to easily and efficiently courier. Be sure that there is convenient parking for both customers and employees. As with foot traffic, take the time to monitor the facility at various times and days, to see how the demand for parking fluctuates.
Competition and other services
Are competing companies located nearby? Sometimes that’s good, such as in industries where comparison shopping is popular, as you can catch the overflow from existing businesses. If a nearby competitor is only going to make your marketing job tougher, look elsewhere.
Consider what other businesses and services are in the vicinity, whether there is any benefit from customer traffic, and whether there is a suitable range of places and restaurants for employees. You might also want to think about the location of other facilities nearby, such as child care, convenient shops, etc.
Infrastructure, utilities and costs
Check that the building has the infrastructure – adequate electrical, air conditioning, and telecommunications services – to support your business requirements and to meet your present and future needs. For utilities, check what is included in rent, as this can be a major part of the expense.
Lastly, verify the medium- to long-term rental expectations and commitments, so as to mitigate any rental rise.
The deadline for submitting 2017/18 self-assessment tax returns online is 31 January 2019 with a penalty of £100 if the return is late.
Last year approximately 11 million taxpayers completed the return with 10.7 million being on time. In a statement, Angela MacDonald, HMRC’s Director General for Customer Services:
“Time flies once the festive period is underway, yet the ‘niggle’ to file your tax return remains… We want to help people get their tax returns right, starting the process early and giving yourself time to gather all the information you need will help avoid the last minute, stressful rush to complete it on time. Let’s beat that niggle.”
For help with completing your tax return please contact us.
The Budget includes an increase to the Annual Investment Allowance (AIA) for two years up to £1 million. This is in relation to qualifying expenditure incurred from 1 January 2019, currently at £200,000 per year. Additional changes to the rules outlined include the following:
- Reduction to the rate of writing down allowance on the special rate pool of plant and machinery. This includes long-life assets, thermal insulation, integral features, and expenditure on cars with CO2 emissions of more than 110g/km, from 8% to 6% in April 2019.
- Confirmation and clarification as to the costs of altering land, for the purposes of installing qualifying plant or machinery for capital allowances, for claims on or after 29 October 2018.
- The 100% first year allowance and first year tax credits for products on the Energy Technology List and Water Technology List will come to an end from April 2020.
- An extension to the current 100% first year allowance for expenditure incurred on electric charge-point equipment until 2023.
- The introduction of a new capital allowances regime for structures and buildings will apply to new non-residential structures and buildings. Relief will be provided on eligible construction costs incurred on or after 29 October 2018, at an annual rate of 2% on a straight-line basis.
For disposals on or after 29 October 2018, the Chancellor announced changes to the Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER) rules.
During his October Budget, he introduced a requirement for a person claiming ER to have at least a 5% interest in the distributable profits and the net assets of the company. This stands in order for one to be deemed to have an interest in a ‘personal company’.
The new ‘tests’ are in addition to the existing tests and they must be met throughout the specified period in order for relief to be due.
The existing tests require a 5% interest in the ordinary share capital and 5% of voting rights.
In addition to the new tests, the Chancellor extended the minimum qualifying period from one year to two years. For this, certain conditions must be met by the claimant.
The measure will take effect on disposals on or after 6 April 2019, except where a business ceased before 29 October 2018.
Draft legislation has been issued which, if enacted, will ensure that, where an individual’s qualifying holding is reduced below 5%, they can elect to exercise their entitlement to ER by claiming a deemed disposal. Furthermore, where there arises a charge to capital gains tax, a further election can be made to defer the payment of the tax due until actual disposal.
The relief will only apply where the reduction below 5% occurs as a result of the company raising funds for commercial purposes by means of an issue of new shares wholly for cash consideration. The new rules will apply for share issues which occur on or after 6 April 2019.
In the Autumn Budget, the Chancellor Philip Hammond stated that “austerity is coming to an end, but discipline will remain”. He outlined a promise for a “double deal dividend” from Brexit and referenced that there is likely to be a full-scale Spring Budget if Brexit negotiations don’t go well.
In the middle of October, HMRC opened the Making Tax Digital for VAT pilot. This is now available for nearly 70% of those mandated to file MTD-compliant VAT returns for all future VAT-return periods starting after the 31 March 2019.
The requirement to join VAT-MTD applies to all VAT registered entities with a VAT-able turnover of above the £85K compulsory VAT-registration threshold. This applies whether they file their returns on a monthly or quarterly basis.
Businesses wishing to join HMRC’s pilot must complete an online registration process, they must keep their VAT records digitally from the first day of their next VAT Return period, and they must submit subsequent VAT returns using MTD-compliant software such as QuickBooks Online.
There is a six-month deferral of mandation for the approximately 3.5% who have complex requirements. These include trusts, not for profits, VAT divisions and groups, local authorities, overseas traders, and annual accounting scheme users. Pilot testing for these groups is expected to open in Spring 2019.
HMRC have released a timeline with more details on Pilot eligibility, which you can view here.
The end is nigh.
During what one could be forgiven for thinking was a pre-election budget, the Chancellor confidently stated that ‘austerity is coming to an end – but discipline will remain’.
He then went on to promise a ‘double deal dividend’ if Brexit negotiations turned out to be successful and he warned that there would be a full-scale Spring Budget in 2019 if not.
This budget Newswire focuses on the tax measures which may affect you.
Main Budget Tax-Related Proposals
- Increases to the Personal Allowance and the Basic Rate Band.
- An extension of Off-Payroll Working (IR35) for the private sector.
- A temporary increase to the Annual Investment Allowance (AIA).
- VAT registration threshold is frozen for a further two years.
- Changes to Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER) and Private Residence Relief (PRR).
- Measures to tackle the plastic problem.
Budget proposals are often subject to amendment during their passage through Parliament or in the subsequent Spring Statement.
In a welcome, but surprise, move the Chancellor announced he would accelerate his delivery on the government’s manifesto promise of a £12,500 personal allowance (currently £11,850) in April 2019, instead of 2020.
- There’s a reduction to the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000.
- The reduction is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000.
- Once adjusted net income exceeds £125,000 (currently £123,700), personal allowance is extinguished.
The marriage allowance
The marriage allowance enables couples, whose income does not exceed the basic rate, to transfer 10% of their personal allowance to their spouse or civil partner.
The marriage allowance reduces the recipient’s tax bill by up to £238 a year in 2018/19.
Rates and bands
Hardly had Hammond dispensed the personal allowance good news before he revealed a significant increase in the basic rate band from its current £34,500 to £37,500, also from next April. Thus, he delivered another manifesto promise a whole year early.
Taking into account the personal allowance and the increase to the basic rate tax ceiling, the threshold at which the 40% band will apply will be £50,000 from the 6 April 2019.
The basic rate and additional rate of tax remain at 20% and 45% respectively, with the additional rate payable on taxable income above £150,000.
- In the 2018/19 Scottish Budget, the Finance Secretary for Scotland introduced five income tax rates ranging between 19% and 46%.
- The Scottish income tax rates and bands for 2019/20 will be announced on 12 December 2018 as part of the Scottish Draft Budget.
- Scottish taxpayers are entitled to the same personal allowance as individuals in the rest of the UK.
- From April 2019, the Welsh Government has the right to vary the rates of income tax payable by Welsh taxpayers. The UK government will reduce by 10 pence each of the three rates of income tax paid by Welsh taxpayers. In turn, the Welsh Government has provisionally set the Welsh rate of income tax at 10 pence which will be added to the reduced UK rates. This means the rates of income tax paid by Welsh taxpayers will continue to be the same as those paid by English and Northern Irish taxpayers. The Welsh Government will need to confirm this proposal prior to their final Budget.
Tax on dividends
The UK Dividend Allowance will remain at £2,000 for 2019/20.
Dividends received above the allowance are taxed at the following rates:
- 7.5% for basic rate taxpayers
- 32.5% for higher rate taxpayers
- 38.1% for additional rate taxpayers.
- Dividends within the allowance still count towards an individual’s basic or higher rate band and so may affect the rate of tax paid on dividends above the Dividend Allowance.
- To determine which tax band dividends fall, dividends are treated as the last type of income to be taxed.
Tax on savings income
The Savings Allowance, introduced for the 2016/17 tax year and applied to savings income, remains unchanged.
- Individuals taxed at up to the basic rate of tax have an allowance of £1,000.
- For higher rate taxpayers the allowance is £500.
- No allowance is due to additional rate taxpayers.
Some individuals qualify for a 0% starting rate of tax on savings income up to £5,000.
The starting rate is lost where taxable non-savings income exceeds £5,000.
In an interesting U-turn, the Chancellor announced that he will not be introducing a shared occupancy test as he previously indicated he would.
The current £7,500 relief is to remain in place.
Gift Aid – donor benefits
Draft legislation has been issued to simplify the donor benefits rules that apply to charities who claim Gift Aid tax relief on donations.
National Living Wage (NLW) and National Minimum Wage (NMW)
The government is adopting the Low Pay Commission (LPC) recommendation to increase the NLW by 4.9% from £7.83 to £8.21 from April 2019.
It is also accepting all other LPC recommendations for next April’s NMW rates:
- 21-24 year-olds up by 4.3% from £7.38 to £7.70 per hour.
- 18-20 year-olds up by 4.2% from £5.90 to £6.15 per hour.
- 16-17 year-olds up by 3.6% from £4.20 to £4.35 per hour.
- apprentices up by 5.4% from £3.70 to £3.90 per hour.
Corporation tax ratesThe main rate of corporation tax, currently 19%, will remain at this rate for another year. It still looks set to fall to 17% in April 2020.
Class 2 and 4 National Insurance contributions (NICs)
We had already been told that Class 2 NICs will not be abolished during this Parliament. After the embarrassing U-turn in March 2017, we have been told that there will not be any increases to Class 4 NICs rates either.
UK property income of non-UK resident companies
Confirming a pre-Budget announcement, from 6 April 2020, non-UK resident companies that continue with a UK property business, or have other UK property income, will be charged corporation tax. This will be charged rather than income tax, as at present.
Annual Investment Allowance
In a surprise move – which may be considered to be mainly a hollow gesture, due to the fact that few businesses will be in the position to take advantage of the offer – Chancellor Hammond increased the Annual Investment Allowance for two years starting from 1 January 2019. The allowance will change from £200,000 to £1,000,000 in respect of qualifying expenditure.
In common with similar moves in the past, complex calculations may apply to straddling accounting periods.
- Writing down allowances on the special rate pool of plant and machinery – including long-life assets, thermal insulation, integral features, and expenditure on cars with CO2 emissions of more than 110g/km – will reduce to 6% from April 2019. Currently it is set at 8%.
- 100% first year allowance and first year tax credits for products on the Energy Technology List and Water Technology List are set to be abolished from April 2020.
- 100% first year allowance for expenditure incurred on electric charge-point equipment is to be extended to 2023.
- There will be a new capital allowances regime with an annual rate of 2%, on a straight-line basis, for structures and buildings. This will be applicable to new non-residential structures and buildings on eligible construction costs incurred on or after 29 October 2018.
Change to the definition of permanent establishment
From 1 January 2019, the exemption will be denied if they are part of a ‘fragmented business operation’.
Preventing abuse of the R&D tax relief for SMEs
HMRC is said to have identified and prevented £300 million worth of R&D tax relief fraud.
To help prevent abuse of the Research and Development (R&D) SME tax relief by artificial corporate structures, the amount that a loss-making company can receive in R&D tax credits is to be capped at three times its total PAYE and NICs liability from April 2020.
Around 95% of companies currently claiming the payable credit will be unaffected.
HMRC preferential creditor
From April 2020, HMRC will have greater priority to recover taxes paid by employees and customers – namely, PAYE and VAT in the case of the insolvency of a debtor.
Existing rules will remain unchanged for taxes owed by the business.
HMRC will remain below other preferential creditors such as the Redundancy Payment Service.
- Corporate capital losses claims will be restricted to 50% of annual capital gains that can be relieved by brought-forward capital losses. This will apply as of April 2020.
- Changes to the Diverted Profits Tax have been introduced as of 29 October 2018.
- There will be an increase in the small trading tax exemption limits for charities, as of April 2019 it will be £5,000 per annum or, if the turnover is greater than £5,000, 25% of the charity’s total incoming resources. It is subject to an overall upper limit of £50,000, to £8,000 and £80,000 respectively.
- An income tax charge will be introduced on amounts received in a low tax jurisdiction in respect of intangible property. it will apply to the extent that those amounts are referable to the sale of goods or services in the UK, from 6 April 2019, and includes targeted anti-avoidance rules for arrangements entered into on or after 29 October 2018.
Digital Services Tax
In response to growing public disquiet, the Chancellor announced he will introduce a Digital Services Tax (DST), but only if agreement on an international way forward cannot be reached.
Hammond predicted that the new tax would raise £1.5 billion over four years from April 2020.
- DST is to be set at 2% on the revenues of search engines, social media platforms, and online marketplaces, where their revenues are linked to the participation of UK users.
- Businesses will need to generate revenues of at least £500 million globally to fall taxable under the DST.
- The first £25 million of relevant UK revenues are also not taxable
Intangible fixed assets
The Intangible Fixed Assets regime introduced on 1 April 2002 is now more than fifteen years old. The Chancellor announced that the government will seek to introduce targeted relief for the cost of goodwill in the acquisition of businesses with eligible intellectual property from April 2019.
With effect from 7 November 2018, the government will also reform the de-grouping charge rules, which apply when a group sells a company that owns intangibles, so that they more closely align with the equivalent rules elsewhere in the tax code.
Interestingly, in a nod towards Making Tax Digital, Mr Hammond announced a further freezing of the £85,000 registration, now until 2022.
While not a total shock, it is fair to say that it lays to rest, at least for the time being, any scope for the adoption of the Office of Tax Simplification proposals to greatly reduce the registration threshold.
VAT fraud in the construction sector
In a reannouncement of a 2017 commitment, Hammond confirmed that the government will pursue legislation to shift responsibility for paying VAT along the supply chain. This comes with the introduction of a domestic VAT reverse charge for supplies of construction services, with effect from 1 October 2019.
VAT treatment of vouchers
Draft legislation has been issued to introduce a new tax code for the VAT treatment of vouchers, such as gift cards, for which a payment has been made and which will be used to buy something.
The legislation separates vouchers with a single purpose (e.g. a traditional book token) from the more complex gift vouchers, and it sets out how and when VAT should be accounted for in each case. The new legislation is not concerned with the scope of VAT and whether VAT is due. Rather, it is concerned with the question of when VAT is due and, in the case of multi-purpose vouchers, the considerations upon which any VAT is payable.
VAT collection – split payment
The government wants to combat online VAT fraud by harnessing new technology. It is consequently consulting on VAT split payment.
The intention is to utilise payment industry technology to collect VAT on online sales and transfer it directly to HMRC.
In the government’s view, this would significantly reduce the challenge of enforcing online seller compliance and offer a simplification for businesses.
Draft legislation has been issued to change the VAT interest rules so that they will be similar to those that currently exist for income tax and corporation tax.
This will mean:
- Late payment interest will be charged from the date the payment was due until the date payment is received.
- HMRC will pay repayment interest when it has held taxpayer repayments for longer than it should.
- The provisions are expected to take effect for VAT returns from 1 April 2020.
Off-payroll working in the private sector
In what can hardly be described as a surprise move, the public sector changes to IR35, commonly referred to as off-payroll working, introduced in April 2017, are to be extended into the private sector from April 2020.
The thrust of the proposal is that responsibility for operating the off-payroll rules will be transferred from the contractor to the private organisation, agency, or third party engaging the worker.
One crumb of comfort is that the rule will only apply to large and medium-sized employers.
The Employment Allowance provides businesses and charities with up to £3,000 off their employer NICs bill.
From April 2020, the Employment Allowance will be restricted to employers whose employer NICs bill was below £100,000 in the previous tax year.
Most cars are taxed by reference to bands of CO2 emissions, multiplied by the original list price of the vehicle. The maximum charge is capped at 37% of the list price of the car.
The scale of charges for establishing the taxable benefit in respect to an employer-provided car is announced well in advance. This tax year there was generally a 2% increase in the percentage rate applied to each band.
This applies to all diesel cars (unless the car is registered on or after 1 September 2017 and meets the Euro 6d emissions standard), but the maximum is still 37%.
A new development for the current tax year is an increase in the diesel supplement from 3% to 4%.
There is no change to the current position in which the diesel supplement does not apply to hybrid cars.
For 2019/20, rates will increase by a further 3%.
Charging facilities for electric and hybrid cars
A new, backdated, exemption from a taxable employment benefit is being introduced, for those employers providing charging facilities for employee-owned all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles at or near the workplace.
When introduced, the exemption will be effective from 6 April 2018.
Employer-provided cars and vans are already exempt from this benefit.
Exemption for travel expenses
Legislation that will be effective from April 2019 will remove the requirement for employers to check receipts when making payments to employees for subsistence when they use benchmark scale rates.
Exemption will apply to standard meal allowances paid in respect of qualifying travel and overseas scale rates. Employers will only be asked to ensure that employees are undertaking qualifying travel.
The legislation puts existing concessionary accommodation and subsistence overseas scale rates on a statutory basis.
Self-funded work-related training
After consulting on extending the scope of tax relief for employees and the self-employed for work-related training costs, the government has decided not to introduce any changes to the existing rules. The National Retraining Scheme is being launched to help those in work, including the self-employed, to develop further skills.
No changes to the current Capital Gains Tax (CGT) rates were announced
The CGT annual exemption, currently £11,700, will increase to £12,000 from April 2019.
For disposals on or after 29 October 2018, two new tests are to be added to the definition of a ‘personal company’. These will require the claimant to have a 5% interest in both the distributable profits and the net assets of the company.
The new tests must be met, in addition to the existing tests. The existing tests already require a 5% interest in the ordinary share capital and 5% of voting rights.
ER – minimum qualifying period
From 6 April 2019, legislation will be introduced to extend the minimum ER qualifying period from one year to two years.
The measure will have immediate effect, except where a business ceased before 29 October 2018.
ER – dilution of holdings below 5%
Following consultation, draft legislation has been published to provide a potential entitlement to ER where an individual’s holding in a company is reduced below the normal 5% qualifying level.
The relief will apply where the reduction below 5% occurs as a result of the company raising funds for commercial purposes by means of an issue of new shares, wholly for cash consideration.
Shareholders will be able to make an election treating them as if they had disposed of their shares and immediately reacquired them at market value just before dilution.
To avoid an immediate CGT bill on this deemed disposal, a further election can be made to defer the gain until the shares are sold.
ER can then be claimed on the deferred gain in the year the shares are sold, under the rules in force at that time.
The new rules will apply for share issues which occur on or after 6 April 2019.
Gains for non-residents on UK property
Draft legislation has been issued to charge all non-UK resident persons, whether liable to CGT or corporation tax, on gains arising on disposals of interests in any type of UK land (whether residential or non-residential).
Certain revisions are likely to be made, following a further technical consultation, when the full legislation is introduced. However, the key points are covered here:
- All non-UK resident persons will also be taxable on indirect disposals of UK land.
- The indirect disposal rules will apply when a person has made a disposal of an entity that derives 75% or more of its gross asset value from UK land. There will be an exemption for investors in such entities who hold a less than 25% interest.
- All non-UK resident companies will be charged to corporation tax rather than CGT on their gains.
- There will be options to calculate the gain or loss on a disposal by using the original acquisition cost of the asset or by using the value of the asset at the commencement of the rules in April 2019.
- The CGT charge relating to the Annual Tax on Enveloped Dwellings will be abolished. The legislation will broadly have effect for disposals from 6 April 2019.
The main effect of the new legislation will be to extend the scope of UK taxation of gains to include gains on disposals of interests in non-residential UK property.
Payment on account and 30-day returns
As previously announced, draft legislation has been issued to change the reporting of chargeable gains and their associated CGT liability arising from the disposal of property.
From April 2020, UK residents will be required to make a return and a payment on account of CGT within thirty days of their completion of a residential property disposal. This applies not only in the UK, but on a worldwide basis.
The requirements will not apply in cases where the gain on the disposal is not chargeable to CGT – for example, where the gains are covered by private residence relief.
CGT private residence relief
The Chancellor announced his intention to make two changes to Private Residence Relief:
- The final period exemption will be reduced from 18 months to 9 months.
- Lettings Relief will be reformed so that it only applies in circumstances where the owner of the property is in ‘shared-occupancy’ with a tenant.
The government will consult on the details of both changes, as well as on other technical aspects.
The proposed changes are intended to be effective from April 2020.
There will be no changes to the current 36 months that are available to disabled persons or those in a care home.
Inheritance tax (IHT)
The nil rate band, at £325,000, is set to remain frozen until April 2021, the same level at which it has been since April 2009.
IHT residence nil rate band
On the 6 April 2017 a new nil rate band, called the ‘residence nil rate band’ (RNRB) was introduced, meaning that the family home can be passed more easily to direct descendants on death.
The RNRB is being phased in:
- For deaths in 2018/19 it is £125,000.
- Rising to £150,000 in 2019/20.
- Finally reaching £175,000 in 2020/21.
Thereafter it will rise in line with the Consumer Price Index.
- There are a number of conditions that must be met in order to obtain the RNRB, which may involve redrafting an existing will.
- The RNRB may also be available when a person downsizes or ceases to own a home on or after 8 July 2015 – where assets of an equivalent value, up to that of the RNRB, are passed on death to direct descendants.
- Amendments are to be introduced to the RNRB relating to downsizing provisions and the definition of ‘inherited’ for RNRB purposes.
- The amendments are to clarify the downsizing rules and are to provide certainty over when a person is treated as ‘inheriting’ property. They will have effect for deaths on or after 29 October 2018.
Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT)
First time buyers’ relief
The relief for first time buyers is to be extended to purchasers of qualifying shared ownership properties who do not elect to pay SDLT on the market value of the whole property when they purchase their first share.
Relief will be applied to the first share purchased, where the market value of the shared ownership property is £500,000 or less.
The relief is to apply retrospectively from 22 November 2017 and means that a refund of tax will be payable for those who have paid SDLT after 22 November 2017 in circumstances which now qualify for first time buyers’ relief.
Higher rates for additional dwellings (HRAD)
A minor amendment will extend the time allowed to claim back HRAD, where an individual sells their old home within three years of buying their new one.
The measure also clarifies the meaning of `major interest` in land for the general purpose of HRAD.
Consultation on SDLT charge for non-residents
The government will publish a consultation, in January 2019, concerning a SDLT surcharge of 1% for non-residents buying residential property in England and Northern Ireland.
Extension of offshore time limits
Draft legislation, intended to increase to twelve years the assessment time limits for offshore income and gains and the recovery of inheritance tax, has been issued.
Where an assessment involves a loss of tax brought about deliberately, the assessment time limit remains twenty years from of the end of the year of assessment.
The legislation does not apply to corporation tax, or where HMRC has received information from another tax authority under automatic exchange of information.
The potential extension of time limits will apply from the 2013/14 tax year, where the loss of tax is brought about by careless behaviour, and from the 2015/16 tax year in other cases.
The amendments will have effect once Finance Bill 2018-19 receives Royal Assent.
- The current assessment time limits are ordinarily four years (six years in the case of carelessness by the taxpayer).
- The legislation cannot be used to go back earlier than 2013/14.
- If there has been careless behaviour, HMRC can make an assessment for up to twelve years from 2013/14 in respect of offshore matters, but HMRC cannot raise an assessment for 2012/13 or earlier (unless there is deliberate error by the taxpayer).
Penalties for late submission of tax returns
A new points-based penalty regime for late return submission is to be introduced.
Depending on the frequency of the filing obligation, a defined number of penalty points will accrue. Once a triggering threshold has been reached, a fixed penalty will be charged.
Further late submissions will attract a fixed penalty, until the taxpayer meets all submission obligations by the relevant deadline for a set period of time.
Once this happens, and a taxpayer has provided any outstanding submissions for the preceding 24 months, the points total will reset to zero.
Points will generally have a lifetime of 24 months after which they expire, so if a taxpayer accrues points but does not reach the threshold, the points will expire after 24 months.
Taxpayers will have a separate points total per submission obligation.
Penalties for late payment of tax
Draft legislation has been issued to harmonise the late payment penalty regimes for income tax, corporation tax, and VAT.
The penalties will consist of two penalty charges, one charge based upon payments and agreements to pay in the first thirty days after the payment due date, and another charge based upon how long the debt remains outstanding after the thirty days.
As part of the government’s response to tackling plastic waste, the following announcements were made:
- Single-use plastics will be addressed in the Resources and Waste Strategy, later in the year, for situations in which recycling rates are too low and producers use too little recycled plastic.
- The issue of excess and harmful packaging will be addressed with a tax on the production and importation of plastic packaging which does not contain at least 30% recycled plastic.
- This tax will be implemented in April 2022.
- The Resources and Waste Strategy will also consider ways to reduce the environmental impact of disposable cups.
- Although the government does not believe that a levy would be effective at this time, it will return to the issue if insufficient progress has been made by those businesses already taking steps to address the matter.
Whenever the Chancellor announces the results of his Budget, there’s always an awful lot to digest. Don’t suffer in silence. Call us; we are here to help
When setting out on a new venture or business idea, so many businesses do not succeed. This could be down to a combination of factors. Yet, one common factor is the challenges associated with executing the idea and establishing it in the market.
To ensure your idea or business has the best start, or if you are reviewing current plans and progress, you must first develop an effective business strategy to support you. To help, here are five steps to guide you.
- Build up your data and knowledge
- Build Your Vision and Mission Statement
- Define your Strategy and Tactical Plans
- Track and Manage Performance
- Execute, Learn and Review
To know where you want to go is first to understand where you are today. The best way to do this is to investigate the past. This could be through data from your market, so you understand the size of the opportunity at stake. Investigate the total market size, the number of potential customers, and the growth rates of similar projects. Using the SWOT framework helps you identify Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, both internally and externally.
You might want to use the PESTLE model to explore deeper into external factors that may affect your business. This looks into the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, and Environmental aspects of your business and market. It is key to make sure you involve the right people in this process to help you build up your data and knowledge.
Once you understand the market, begin to narrow down your idea, exploring the unique business problem you are looking to solve, and the market opportunity associated to it.
Your vision should be used to describe the future direction of the business and its aims in the medium to long term. It’s about describing your organisation’s purpose and values. This should be built in parallel to your mission statement, which defines the organisation’s purpose and outlines its primary objectives.
In simple terms, organisations summarise their goals and objectives in mission and vision statements. These serve different purposes but are often confused with each other. While a mission statement describes what a company wants to do now, a vision statement outlines what a company wants to be in the future.
The mission statement focuses on what needs to be done in the short term to realise the long-term vision. So, for the vision statement, you are asking where do you want to be in three to five years’ time. The mission statement, alternatively, asks: what do we do? how do we do it? for whom do we do it? what value do we bring?
Amazon’s Corporate Vision Statement: “To be Earth’s most customer-centric company; to build a place where people can come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online.”
Google’s Corporate Mission Statement: “To organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.”
At this stage, the aim is to develop a set of high-level objectives for all areas of the business. These need to highlight the priorities and inform the plans that will ensure delivery of the company’s vision and mission. By reviewing your work in step one across the SWOT and PESTLE analyses, you can layer these into your SMART Objectives (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-related).
Your objectives must also include factors such as KPI’s, resource allocation, and budget requirements. It is key to align your resources and structure according to the strategy, so to clarify everyone’s role and accountability.
All the planning and hard work may have been done, but it’s vital to review continuously all objectives and action plans – to ensure you’re still on track to achieve that overall goal. Managing and monitoring a whole strategy is a complex task, which is why many directors, managers and business leaders are looking to alternative methods of handling strategies. Creating, managing and reviewing a strategy requires you to capture the relevant information, break down large chunks of information, plan, prioritise, and have a clear strategic vision.
Firstly, execute your business strategy with excellence and, throughout, capture learning so that it can be reapplied or used to adjust the plan if necessary. Do not be afraid to make mistakes, but make sure each mistake is an opportunity to apply learning to the strategy. Executing at the highest level is key: anyone can have a good idea, but those who can execute make a lesser idea into a successful business.
Remember always to celebrate your team and business successes. It can be quite easy to get dragged into the here-and-now and forget to reflect on the great achievements of the organisation.
A daunting prospect
If after reading our article, you feel daunted by what you need to do, don’t worry. We are here to help you every step of the way. Simply give us a call and we will guide you through the challenging start-up maze.